Journal of Geodesy

, Volume 78, Issue 1–2, pp 47–54 | Cite as

First-order design of geodetic networks using the simulated annealing method

  • J. L. Berné
  • S. BaselgaEmail author


The general problem of the optimal design for a geodetic network subject to any extrinsic factors, namely the first-order design problem, can be dealt with as a numeric optimization problem. The classic theory of this problem and the optimization methods are revised. Then the innovative use of the simulated annealing method, which has been successfully applied in other fields, is presented for this classical geodetic problem. This method, belonging to iterative heuristic techniques in operational research, uses a thermodynamical analogy to crystalline networks to offer a solution that converges probabilistically to the global optimum. Basic formulation and some examples are studied.

Key words

Simulated annealing Optimization First-order design Geodetic networks D-optimality 


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The authors are especially grateful to the editor, Dr. Peiliang Xu, and the reviewers, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Reiner Jäger and Prof. Dr. Paul Anthony Cross, as well as an anonymous reviewer, for their valuable suggestions, corrections and constructive comments.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cartographic Engineering, Geodesy and Photogrammetry DepartmentPolytechnic University of ValenciaValenciaSpain

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