Site-specific multipath characteristics of global IGS and CORS GPS sites
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The site-specific multipath characteristics of 217 Global Positioning System (GPS) sites worldwide were analyzed using the variability of the post-fit phase residuals. Because the GPS satellite constellation returns to the same configuration in a sidereal day (23 h 56 min 4 s), the multipath repeats on that period. However, daily GPS position estimates are usually based on the solar day. When several days of GPS data are processed, this steady change in the orientation of the satellite constellation with respect to the station manifests itself in the form of patterns in the post-fit phase residuals which shift by 3 min 56 s per day. It was found that the mean root mean square of the time-shifted post-fit phase residuals is highly dependent on the GPS antenna type. The conclusions derived from the analysis of the time-shifted post-fit residuals were verified by performing a cross-correlation of the post-fit residuals across many days for selected sites.
KeywordsGPS Multipath Post-fit phase residuals
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This investigation was supported by NSF through grants EAR-9706407, EAR-9708251, EAR-9727055, and EAR-0196110, by NASA through the Solid Earth and Natural Hazards Program, and by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first author was supported by Ministry of Science and Technology of Korea grant M2-0104-11-0012-01-A02-06-001-2-0 while finishing up this manuscript at Korea Astronomy Observatory. Thanks are due to Paul Spofford, Neil Weston, Ed Timmerman, Don Haw, and Jim Drosdak, who all helped the first author with retrieving of the CORS data. We thank three anonyms referees for their constructive comments and reviews.