Advertisement

Zeitschrift für Planung & Unternehmenssteuerung

, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 389–409 | Cite as

Unternehmenswachstum und Internationalität als Qualitätssignale

  • Heribert GierlEmail author
  • Julia Koncz
Original Paper

Zusammenfassung

Viele Unternehmen verzeichnen aufgrund von Fusionen oder Übernahmen ein exogenes oder in Folge von Umsatzerfolgen ein endogenes Wachstum oder erweitern ihr Absatzgebiet auf Länder, in denen sie ihre Produkte noch nicht vertrieben haben. Die Frage, die in diesem Beitrag diskutiert wird, lautet, ob Konsumenten Informationen über solche Ereignisse als Signale für die Qualitätder Produkte dieser Unternehmen verwenden. Zunächst werden klassische Theorienvorgestellt, die erklären, warum Nachfrager bestimmte Informationen zur Qualitätsbewertung heranziehen. Die Überlegungen werden auf das “Unternehmenswachstum” und die “Internationalität” eines Unternehmens übertragen und experimentell getestet.

Company’s Growth and Internationality as Quality Signals

Summary

Many companies show an exogenously or endogenous growth due to mergers and acquisitions or due to increase in sales. Furthermore many companies expand their markets to other countries. Thus the question arises whether consumers interpret information about a company’s growth and increasing internationality as signals of product quality. We apply the signaling theory of SPENCE, the cue utilization theory of COX, and theories of experimental information processing to our question. Based on these theoretical considerations we expected that neither highly or low involved consumers use a company’s growth and internationality as quality signals, whereas moderately involved consumers might rely on these information as quality indicators. In an empirical study we find support for this hypothesis.1

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Acharya, C., Elliott, G. (2001): An Examination of the Effect of ‘Country-of-Design’ and ‘Country-of-Assembly’ on Quality Perceptions and Purchase Intentions. Australian Marketing Journal 9(1), 61–751CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agrawal, J., Kamakura, W.A. (1999): Country of Origin: A Competitive Advantage? International Journal of Research in Marketing 16, 255–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahluwalia, R., Unnava, H.R., Burnkrant, R.E. (2001): The Moderating Role of Commitment on the Spillover Effect of Marketing Communications. Journal of Marketing Research 38, 458–4701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Al-Sulati, K., Baker, M.J. (1998): Country of Origin Effects: A Literature Review. Marketing Intelligence & Planning 16(3), 150–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bambauer, S. (2003): Websites als Qualitätssignal - Eine empirische Analyse der Effekte ausgewählter Website-Elemente. Shaker, AachenGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baumgartner, H. (1995): On the Utility of Consumers’ Theories in Judgement of Covariation. Journal of Consumer Research 21, 634–643CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bearden, W.O., Shimp, T.A. (1982): The Use of Extrinsic Cues to Facilitate Product Adoption. Journal of Marketing Research 19, 229–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bornstein R.F., D’Agostino P.R. (1994): The Attribution and Discounting of Perceptual Fluency: Preliminary Tests of a Perceptual Fluency/Attributional Model of the Mere Exposure Effect. Social Cognition 12, 103–128Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boulding, W., Kirmani, A. (1993): A Consumer-Side Experimental Examination of Signaling Theory: Do Consumers Perceive Warranties as Signals of Quality? Journal of Consumer Research 20, 111–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Braskaran, S. (2005): Marketing Vension Products: Trademarks and Country-of-Origin Influences and Effects, Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation. Melbourne, working paperGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Broniarczyk, S.M., Alba, J.W. (1994): The Role of Consumers’ Intuitions in Inference Making. Journal of Consumer Research 21, 393–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Calder, B.J., Phillips, L.W., Tybout, A.M. (1981): Designing Research for Application. Journal of Consumer Research 8, 197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cox, D.F. (1967): The Sorting Rule Model of the Consumer Product Evaluation Process, in: Cox, D.F. (ed.) Risk Taking and Information Handling in Consumer Behavior, S. 324–369. Harvard University Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    D’Astours, A., Ahmed, S.A. (1992): Multi-Cue Evaluation of Made-In Concept: A Conjoint Analysis Study in Belgium. Journal of Euromarketing 2(1), 9–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Darby, M.R., Karni, E. (1973): Free Competition and the Optimal Amount of Fraud. Journal of Law and Economics 16, 67–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dewar, N., Parker, P. (1994): Marketing Universals: Consumers’ Use of Brand Name, Price, Physical Appearance, and Retailer Reputation as Signals of Product Quality. Journal of Marketing 58, 81–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dodds, W.B., Monroe, K.B., Grewal, D. (1991): Effects of Price, Brand, and Store Information on Buyers’ Product Evaluations. Journal of Marketing Research 28, 307–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eagly, A.H., Chaiken, S. (1993): The Psychology of Attitudes. Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovic, Fort WorthGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Emons, W. (2001): Information, Märkte, Zitronen und Signale. Wirtschaftsdienst XI, 664–668Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gautschi, D.A., Rao, V.R. (1990): A Methodology for Specification and Aggregation in Product Concept Testing, in: de Fontenay, A., Shugard, M.H., Sibley, D.S. (eds.) Telecommunications Demand Modelling, S. 37–63. AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Grice, H.P. (1981): Presupposition and Conversational Implicature, in: Cole, P. (ed.) Radical Pragmatics, S. 183–198. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Heimbach, A.E., Johansson, J.K., MacLachlan, D.L. (1989): Product Familiarity, Information Processing, and Country-of-Origin Cues. Advances of Consumer Research 16, 460–467Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hellofs, L.L., Jacobson, R. (1999): Market Share and Customers’ Perceptions of Quality: When Can Firms Grow Their Way to Higher Versus Lower Quality? Journal of Marketing 63, 16–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Huston, J.H., Spence, R.W. (2002): Quality, Uncertainty and the Internet: the Market for Cyber Lemons. American Economist 46(1), 50–60Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kaas, K.P. (1990): Marketing als Bewältigung von Informations- und Unsicherheitsproblemen im Markt. Die Betriebswirtschaft 50, 539–548Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kaas, K.P. (1991): Marktinformationen: Screening und Signaling unter Partnern und Rivalen. Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft 61, 357–370Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kaas, K.P., Busch, A. (1996): Inspektions-, Erfahrungs- und Vertrauenseigenschaften von Produkten. Marketing ZFP 18, 243–252Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kirmani, A. (1990): The Effect of Perceived Advertising Costs on Brand Perceptions. Journal of Consumer Research 17, 160–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kirmani, A., Rao, A.R. (2000): No Pain, No Gain: A Critical Review of the Literature on Signaling Unobservable Product Quality. Journal of Marketing 64, 66–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kirmani, A., Wright, P. (1989): Money Talks: Perceived Advertising Expense and Expected Product Quality. Journal of Consumer Research 16, 344–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Klein, B., Leffler, K.B. (1981): The Role of Market Forces in Assuring Contractual Performance. Journal of Political Economy 89, 615–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kupsch, P., Mathes, H.D. (1977): Determinanten der Qualitätsbeurteilung bei langlebigen Gebrauchsgütern. Jahrbuch der Absatz- und Verbrauchsforschung 23, 233–265Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lebrenz, S. (1996): Länderimages: Einflußfaktoren und Bedeutung für das Konsumentenverhalten. Eul, LohmarGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lehmann, E. (1999): Asymmetrische Information und Werbung. Gabler, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Levinson, S.C. (2000): Pragmatik. Niemeyer, TübingenGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lim, J.-S., Darley, W.K. (1997): An Assessment of Demand Artefacts in Country-of-Origin Studies Using Three Alternative Approaches. International Marketing Review 14(4), 201–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Mandler G., Nakamura Y., van Zandt B.J.S. (1987): Non-Specific Effects of Exposure on Stimuli that cannot be Recognized. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory Cognition 13, 646–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Meyers-Levy, J., Malaviya, P. (1999): Consumer’s Processing of Persuasive Advertisements: An Integrative Framework of Persuasion Theories. Journal of Marketing 63, 45–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Nelson, P. (1970): Information and Consumer Behavior. Journal of Political Economy 78, 311–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nelson, P. (1974): Advertising as Information. The Journal of Political Economy 82, 729–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Nes, E., Bilkey, W.J. (1993): A Multi-Cue Test of Country-of-Origin Theory, in: Papadopoulos, N., Heslop, L.A. (eds.): Product-Country Images: Impact and Role in International Marketing, S. 179–195. International Business Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Olson, J.C. (1977): Price as an Informational Cue: Effects on Product Evaluations, in: Woodside, A.G., Sheth, J.N., Bennet, P.D. (eds.): Consumer and Industrial Buying Behavior, S. 267–286. AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Olson, J.C. (1978): Inferential Belief Formation in the Cue Utilization Process, in: Hunt, H.K. (ed.): Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 5, S. 706–713. Association for Consumer Research, Ann ArborGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Olson, J.C., Jacoby, J. (1972): Cue Utilization in the Quality Perception Process, in: Venkatesan, M. (ed.): Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference of the Association for Consumer Research, S. 167–179. Association for Consumer Research, Iowa CityGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pechmann, C., Ratneshwar, S. (1992): Consumer Covariation Judgements: Theory or Data Driven. Journal of Consumer Research 19, 373–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Penker, W. (2000): Unternehmensfusionen: Zwang zur Größe? Das Öffentliche Haushaltswesen in Österreich 41, 78–86Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Peterson, R.A., Joliberg, A.J.P. (1995): A Meta-Analysis of Country-of-Origin Effects. Journal of International Business Studies 25(4), 883–897CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Petty, R.E., Cacioppo, J.T. (1986): The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion, in: Berkowitz, L. (ed.): Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 19, S. 123–205. Academic Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Petty, R.E., Cacioppo, J.T., Schumann, D. (1983): Central and Peripheral Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Role of Involvement. Journal of Consumer Research 10, 135–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rao, A.R., Monroe, K.B. (1988): The Moderating Effect of Prior Knowledge on Cue Utilization in Product Evaluations. Journal of Consumer Research 15, 253–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rao, A.R., Monroe, K.B. (1989): The Effect of Price, Brand Name, and Store Name on Buyers’ Perceptions of Product Quality: An Integrative Review. Journal of Marketing Research 26, 351–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Rao, A.R., Qu, L., Ruekert, R.W. (1999): Signaling Unobservable Quality through a Brand Ally. Journal of Marketing Research 36, 258–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Schellinck, D.A. (1983): Cue Choice as a Function of Time Pressure and Perceived Risk. Advances in Consumer Research 10, 470–475Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Simon, H. (1981): Informationstransfer und Marketing. Zeitschrift für Wirtschafts- und Sozialwissenschaften 101, 589–608Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Spence, M. (1973): Job Market Signaling. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 87, 355–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Spence, M. (1974): Market Signaling: Informational Transfer in Hiring and Related Screening Processes. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Spence, M. (1976): Informational Aspects of Market Structure: An Introduction. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 90, 591–597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Spence, M. (2002): Signaling in Retrospect and the Informational Structure of Markets. The American Economic Review 92, 434–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Spremann, K. (1988): Reputation, Garantie, Information. Zeitschrift für Betriebswirtschaft 58, 613–629Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Stich, A. (1997): Herkunftszeichen als Qualitätssignal: Eine Erklärung der Nutzung eines extrinsischen Produktmerkmals als Qualitätssignal durch Konsumenten am Beispiel von Herkunftszeichen. Eul, LohmarGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tetlock, P.E., Lerner, J.S., Boettger, R. (1996): The Dilution Effect: Judgmental Bias, Conversational Convention, or a Bit of Both? European Journal of Social Psychology 26, 915–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Tichy, G. (1999): Firmengröße und Globalisierung, in: Bögenhold, D. (Hrsg.): Unternehmensgründung und Dezentralität Renaissance der beruflichen Selbständigkeit in Europa, S. 127–143. VS-Verlag, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Till, B.D. (1998): Using Celebrity Endorsers Effectively: Lessons from Associative Learning. Journal of Product & Brand Management 7(5), 400–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Tolle, E. (1994): Informationsökonomische Erkenntnisse für das Marketing bei Qualitätsunsicherheit der Konsumenten. Schmalenbachs Zeitschrift für betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung 46, 926–938Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Verlegh, P.W.J., Steenkamp, J.-B.E.M. (1999): A Review and Meta-Analysis of Country-of-Origin Research. Journal of Economic Psychology 20, 521–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wall, M., Liefeld, J., Heslop, L.A. (1991): Impact of Country-of-Origin cues on Consumer Judgments in Multi-Cue Situations: A Covariance Analysis. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science 19(2), 105–113Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Weiber, R., Adler, J. (1995a): Informationsökonomisch begründete Typologisierung von Kaufprozessen. Schmalenbachs Zeitschrift für betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung 47, 43–65Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Weiber, R., Adler, J. (1995b): Positionierung von Kaufprozessen im informationsökonomischen Dreieck: Operationalisierung und verhaltenswissenschaftliche Prüfung. Schmalenbachs Zeitschrift für betriebswirtschaftliche Forschung 47, 99–123Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Winkler, S. (2000): Der Aufbau von Qualitätssignalen durch Werbung. Eine empirische Studie am Beispiel eines neuen Gütezeichens. Eul, LohmarGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lehrstuhl für Betriebswirtschaftslehre mit dem Schwerpunkt MarketingUniversität AugsburgAugsburgDeutschland

Personalised recommendations