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Three-player nim with podium rule

Abstract

If a combinatorial game involves more than two players, the problem of coalitions arises. To avoid the problem, Shuo-Yen Robert Li analyzed three-player nim with the podium rule, that is, if a player cannot be last, he should try to be last but one. With that simplification, he proved that a disjunctive sum of nim piles is a \({\mathcal {P}}\)-position if and only if the sum modulo 3 of the binary representations of the piles is equal to zero. In this paper, we extend the result in order to understand the complete characterization of the outcome classes, the possible reductions of the game forms, the equivalence classes under the equality of games and related canonical forms.

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Acknowledgements

The authors are grateful to the anonymous referee for his high quality report. That has greatly improved this paper.

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Correspondence to Carlos P. Santos.

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R.J. Nowakowski research was supported in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada. C. P. Santos supported by UID/MAT/04721/2019 strategic project.

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Nowakowski, R.J., Santos, C.P. & Silva, A.M. Three-player nim with podium rule. Int J Game Theory (2020) doi:10.1007/s00182-019-00702-3

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Keywords

  • Combinatorial game theory
  • Impartial games
  • nim
  • Three-player games
  • Podium rule