Advertisement

Empirical Economics

, Volume 47, Issue 4, pp 1251–1282 | Cite as

The associations between early life circumstances and later life health and employment in Europe

  • Manuel Flores
  • Adriaan Kalwij
Article

Abstract

We use data from the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe to estimate for thirteen European countries the associations of early life circumstances—measured by childhood health and socioeconomic status (SES)—with educational attainment, and later life health and employment (at ages 50–64). In all countries and for men and women, favorable early life circumstances, and in particular a higher childhood SES, are associated with a higher level of education. In most countries and in particular for women, favorable early life circumstances are associated with better later life health, also when education is controlled for. The significant associations of favorable early life circumstances with a higher incidence of later life employment are mostly transmitted through education and later life health.

Keywords

Early life circumstances Health Employment SHARE 

JEL Classification

D00 I10 J10 J20 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The SHARE data collection has been primarily funded by the European Commission through the 5th Framework Program (project QLK6-CT-2001-00360 in the thematic program Quality of Life), through the 6th Framework Program (Projects SHARE-I3, RII-CT-2006-062193, COMPARE, CIT5- CT-2005-028857, and SHARELIFE, CIT4-CT-2006-028812), and through the 7th Framework Program (SHARE-PREP, No. 211909, SHARE-LEAP, No. 227822 and SHARE M4, No. 261982). Additional funding is also gratefully acknowledged from the U.S. National Institute on Aging (U01 AG09740-13S2, P01 AG005842, P01 AG08291, P30 AG12815, R21 AG025169, Y1-AG-4553-01, IAG BSR06-11 and OGHA 04-064) and the German Ministry of Education and Research, as well as from various national sources (see http://www.share-project.org/ for a full list of funding institutions). The authors use release 2.5.0 of waves 1 and 2, release 1 of wave 3 (SHARELIFE), and release 1 of wave 4. The authors wish to thank Rob Alessie, Melchor Fernández, Courtney van Houtven, and the seminar participants at Utrecht University School of Economics, the 31st Jornadas de la Asociación de Economía de la Salud, the 9th Jornadas de la Asociación Española de Economía del Trabajo, the 3rd SHARE user conference, the 23rd conference of the European Association of Labor Economists, and the January 2012 International Pension Workshop of the Network for Studies on Pensions, Aging and Retirement, the associate editor and two anonymous referees for valuable comments and discussions. Manuel Flores gratefully acknowledges the financial support from Xunta de Galicia through its María Barbeito fellowship program, and the generous hospitality of Utrecht University School of Economics during the fall of 2010.

References

  1. Adam P (1996) Mothers in an insider-outsider economy: the puzzle of Spain. J Popul Econ 9:301–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler NE, Boyce T, Chesney MA, Cohen S, Kahn RL, Syme SL (1994) Socioeconomic status and health: the challenge of the gradient. Am Psychol 49:15–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Almond D (2006) Is the 1918 Influenza Pandemic over? Long-term effects of in utero influenza exposure in the post-1940 US population. J Polit Econ 114:672–712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Almond D, Currie J (2011a) Killing me softly: the fetal origins hypothesis. J Econ Perspect 25:153–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Almond D, Currie J (2011b) Human capital development before age five. In: Ashenfelter O, Card D (eds) Handbook of labor economics, vol 4. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 1315–1486Google Scholar
  6. Almond D, Mazumder B (2005) The 1918 Influenza Pandemic and subsequent health outcomes: an analysis of SIPP data. Am Econ Rev Pap Proc 95:258–262Google Scholar
  7. Barker DJP (1995) Fetal origins of coronary heart disease. Br Med J 311:171–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barreca AI (2010) The long-term economic impact of in utero and postnatal exposure to malaria. J Hum Resour 45:865–892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Batty GD, Shipley MJ, Gunnell D, Huxley R, Kivimaki M, Woodward M, Ying-Lee CM, Smith GD (2009) Height, wealth, and health: an overview with new data from three longitudinal studies. Econ Hum Biol 7:137–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bengtsson T, Mineau GP (2009) Early-life effects on socio-economic performance and mortality in later life: a full life-course approach using contemporary and historical sources. Soc Sci Med 68:1561–1564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Börsch-Supan A, Brandt M, Hank K, Schröder M (2011) The individual and the welfare state. Life histories in Europe. Springer, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  12. Bound J (1991) Self-reported versus objective measures of health in retirement models. J Hum Resour 26:106–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bound J, Brown C, Mathiowetz N (2001) Measurement error in survey data. In: Heckman JJ, Leamer E (eds) Handbook of econometrics, vol 5. Elsevier, New York, pp 3705–3843Google Scholar
  14. Bozzoli C, Deaton A, Quintana-Domeque C (2009) Adult height and childhood disease. Demography 46:647–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brunello G, Weber G, Weiss CT (2012) Books are forever: early life conditions, education and lifetime income. IZA Discussion Papers 6386Google Scholar
  16. Cameron AC, Trivedi PK (2005) Microeconometrics, methods and applications. Cambridge University Press, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Case A, Fertig A, Paxson C (2005) The lasting impact of childhood health and circumstance. J Health Econ 24:365–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Case A, Lubotsky D, Paxson C (2002) Economic status and health in childhood: the origins of the gradient. Am Econ Rev 92:1308–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Case A, Paxson C (2008) Height, health and cognitive function at older ages. Am Econ Rev Pap Proc 98:463–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cavapozzi D, Garrouste C, Paccagnella O (2011) Childhood, schooling and income inequality. In: Börsch-Supan A, Brandt M, Hank K, Schröder M (eds) The individual and the welfare state. Life histories in Europe. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 31–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cavelaars AE, Kunst AE, Geurts JJ, Crialesi R, Grotvedt L, Helmert U, Lahelma E, Lundberg O, Mielk A, Rasmussen NK, Regidor E, Spuhler T, Mackenbach JP (2000) Persistent variations in average height between countries and between socio-economic groups: an overview of 10 European countries. Ann Hum Biol 27:407–421CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chen Y, Zhou L-A (2007) The long-term health and economic consequences of the 1959–1961 famine in China. J Health Econ 26:659–681CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Currie J, Stabile M (2003) Socioeconomic status and health: why is the relationship stronger for older children? Am Econ Rev 93:1813–1823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. dal Bianco C, Garrouste C, Paccagnella O (2013) Early-life circumstances and cognitive functioning dynamics in later life. In: Börsch-Supan A, Brandt M, Litwin H, Weber G (eds) Active ageing and solidarity between generations in Europe: first results from SHARE after the economic crisis. Gruyter, Berlin, pp 209–223Google Scholar
  25. de la Rica S, Iza A (2005) Career planning in Spain: do fixed-term contracts delay marriage and parenthood? Rev Econ Household 3:49–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Doblhammer G, van den Berg GJ (2011) Long-term effects of famine on life expectancy: A re-analysis of the Great Finnish Famine of 1866–1868. IZA Discussion Papers 5534Google Scholar
  27. Doyle O, Harmon CP, Heckman JJ, Tremblay RE (2009) Investing in early human development: timing and economic efficiency. Econ Hum Biol 7:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dronkers J (1993) Educational reform in the Netherlands: did it change the impact of parental occupation and education? Sociol Educ 66:262–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dutton DB, Levine S (1989) Overview, methodological critique, and reformulation. In: Bunker JP, Gomby DS, Kehrer BH (eds) Pathways to health. Kaiser Family Foundation, Menlo Park, pp 29–69Google Scholar
  30. Erikson R, Goldthorpe JH (2002) Intergenerational inequality: a sociological perspective. J Econ Perspect 16:31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Guryan J, Hurst E, Kearney M (2008) Parental education and parental time with children. J Econ Perspect 22:23–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gustafsson S, Stafford FP (1994) Three regimes of child care: the United States, the Netherlands, and Sweden. In: Blank RM (ed) Social protection versus economic flexibility: is there a trade-off?. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 333–362Google Scholar
  33. Guven C, Lee W-S (2011) Height and cognitive function among older Europeans: Do people from “tall” countries have superior cognitive abilities? IZA Discussion Papers 6210Google Scholar
  34. Havari E, Mazzonna F (2011) Can we trust older people’s statements on their childhood circumstances? Evidence from SHARELIFE. SHARE Working Papers 05–2011Google Scholar
  35. Idler EL, Kasl S (1991) Health perceptions and survival: do global evaluations of health status really predict mortality? J Gerontol 46:S55–S65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kuh DJL, Wadsworth MEJ (1993) Physical health status at 36 years in a British national birth cohort. Soc Sci Med 37:905–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lewis J (2001) The decline of the male breadwinner model: implications for work and care. Soc Pol 8:152–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Maccini S, Yang D (2009) Under the weather: Health, schooling, and economic consequences of early-life rainfall. Am Econ Rev 99:1006–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Maddison A (2010) Statistics on world population, GDP and per capita GDP, 1–2008 AD. Groningen Growth and Development Centre, Groningen University. http://www.ggdc.net/MADDISON/oriindex.htm. Accessed 1 July 2011
  40. Maestas N (2010) Back to work: expectations and realizations of work after retirement. J Hum Resour 45:718–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Marmot M, Allen J, Bell R, Bloomer E, Goldblatt P, on behalf of the Consortium for the European Review of Social Determinants of Health and the Health Divide (2012) WHO European review of social determinants of health and the health divide. Lancet 380:1011–1029Google Scholar
  42. Marmot MG, Brunner S, Hemingway S (2001) Relative contributions of early life and adult socioeconomic factors to adult morbidity in the Whitehall II study. J Epidemiol Community Health 55:301–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Marmot MG, Wilkinson RG (1999) Social determinants of health. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  44. Nelson RE (2010) Testing the fetal origins hypothesis in a developing country: evidence from the 1918 Influenza Pandemic. Health Econ 19:1181–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Painter RC, Roseboom TJ, Bleker OP (2005) Prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine and disease in later life: an overview. Reprod Toxicol 20:345–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pappas G, Queen S, Hadden W, Fisher G (1993) The increasing disparity in mortality between socioeconomic groups in the United States, 1960 and 1986. New Engl J Med 329:103–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Roseboom TJ, van der Meulen JHP, Ravelli ACJ, Osmond C, Barker DJP, Bleker OP (2001) Effects of prenatal exposure to the Dutch famine on adult disease in later life: an overview. Mol Cell Endocrinol 185:93–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Roseboom T, de Rooij S, Painter R (2006) The Dutch famine and its long-term consequences for adult health. Early Hum Dev 82:485–491CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Smith JP (1999) Healthy bodies and thick wallets: the dual relation between health and economic status. J Econ Perspect 13:145–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Smith JP (2009) The impact of childhood health on adult labor market outcomes. Rev Econ Stat 91:478–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Spijker JJA, Cámara AD, Blanes A (2012) The health transition and biological living standards: adult height and mortality in 20th-century Spain. Econ Hum Biol 10:276–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stokols D (1992) Establishing and maintaining healthy environments: toward a social ecology of health promotion. Am Psychol 47:6–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Thong MS, Kaptein AA, Benyamini Y, Krediet RT, Boeschoten EW, Dekker FW, on behalf of the Netherlands Cooperative Study on the Adequacy of Dialysis Study Group (2008) Association between a self-rated health question and mortality in young and old dialysis patients: a cohort study. Am J Kidney Dis 52:111–117Google Scholar
  54. United Nations (2010) Demographic yearbook historical supplement 1948–1997. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York. http://unstats.un.org/unsd/demographic/products/dyb/DYBHist/HistTab11.pdf. Accessed 1 July 2011
  55. van den Berg GJ, Gupta S (2011) The role of marriage in the causal pathway from economic conditions early in life to mortality. IZA Discussion Papers 5454Google Scholar
  56. van den Berg GJ, Lindeboom M, Portrait F (2006) Economic conditions early in life and individual mortality. Am Econ Rev 96:290–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IDEGA-University of Santiago de CompostelaSantiago de CompostelaSpain
  2. 2.Utrecht University School of EconomicsUtrechtThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Tilburg University and Network for Studies on Pensions, Aging and Retirement (Netspar)TilburgThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations