The structure of bias in peer voting systems: lessons from the Eurovision Song Contest
- 1k Downloads
This paper assesses whether and how common characteristics of jury members or peer voters affect the outcomes of voting systems. In particular, we analyze to what extent these common features result in voting bias. We take as a case study the Eurovision Song Contest for which an extensive amount of historical data is available. In contrast to earlier studies we analyze the impact of common factors on the bias individually for each country, which is necessary to substantiate the publicly debated accusations of regional block voting by certain groups of countries. We establish strong evidence for voting bias in the song contest on the basis of geography, even after correction for culture, language, religion and ethnicity. However, these effects do generally not correspond to the usual accusations. We believe that our findings extend to all instances where groups of jury members or peer voters share certain common factors, which may cause voting bias. It is important to identify such structures explicitly, as it can help avoiding bias in the first place.
KeywordsVoting systems Peer voting Expert judgement Eurovision Song Contest
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited.
- Flôres RG, Ginsburgh VA (1996) The Queen Elizabeth competition: how fair is the final ranking?. J R Stat Soc Ser D, Stat 45: 97–104Google Scholar
- Gatherer D (2006) Comparison of Eurovision Song Contest simulation with actual results reveals shifting patterns of collusive voting alliances. J Artif Soc Soc Simul 9Google Scholar
- Gatherer D (2004) Birth of a meme: the origin and evolution of collusive voting patterns in the Eurovision Song Contest. J Memetics Evol Models Inf Transm 8Google Scholar
- Ginsburgh V, Noury A (2006) The Eurovision Song Contest: is voting political or cultural? (Working Paper)Google Scholar
- Hofstede G (1980) Culture’s consequences. Sage, Beverly HillsGoogle Scholar
- Hofstede G (1996) Cultures and organizations. McGraw-Hill, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Iannaccone LR (1998) Introduction to the economics of religion. J Econ Lit 36: 1465–1496Google Scholar
- Kuran T (1994) Religious economics and the economics of religion. J Inst Theor Econ 150: 769–775Google Scholar
- Popovic R (2000) International bias detected in judging rhythmic gymnastics competition at Sydney-2000 Olympic Games. Phys Educ Sport 11: 1–3Google Scholar
- Turkey in Europe:More than a promise? (2004) Publication of the Independent Commission on Turkey. http://www.independentcommissiononturkey.org/pdfs/english.pdf
- Yaffee RA (2003) A Primer for panel data analysis. Working Paper, New York UniversityGoogle Scholar