Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

On cutting temperatures in high and ultrahigh-speed machining

  • 28 Accesses


Since Dr. Carl Salomon proposed the well-known hypothesis on cutting temperatures in 1931, the debate on the hypothesis has never stopped. It shows that evolutions of temperatures with the increase of cutting speed measured at different points are different. From the tool wear and surface integrity point of view, this paper focuses on the evolutions of chip temperature (Chip temp.), tool-chip contact temperature (T-C temp.), and tool-workpiece contact temperature (T-W temp.) with the increase of cutting speed from low (100 m/min) to very high (7000 m/min). First, the cutting heat generation and the temperature increment in machining are theoretically analyzed. Then the influences of chip shape and mechanical property variations with the increase of cutting speed on the temperatures are analyzed. Finally, the cutting temperatures are semiquantitatively derived from chip colors and other heat characteristics in the chip and cutting tool obtained in cutting experiments: evolutions of Chip temp., T-C temp., and T-W temp. with the increase of cutting speed are presented based on the experiment results. The influence of chip shape and temperature variation on tool wear are also discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8


  1. 1.

    Salomon CJ (1931) Process for machining metals of similar acting materials when being worked by cutting tools, German patent, Number 523594

  2. 2.

    Schultz H (1984) High speed milling of aluminum alloys. In: proceedings of the winter annual meeting of the ASME, New Orleans, pp. 241-244

  3. 3.

    O’Sullivan D, Cotterell M (2002) Workpiece temperature measurement in machining. In Proceedings of the Institute of Mechanical Engineers, Part H. Journal of Engineering in Medicine 216(1):135–139

  4. 4.

    Chen M, Sun F, Wang H, Yuan R, Qu Z, Zhang S (2003) Experimental research on the dynamic characteristics of the cutting temperature in the process of high-speed milling. J Mater Process Technol 138(1):468–471.

  5. 5.

    Richardson DJ, Keavey MA, Dailami F (2006) Modelling of cutting induced workpiece temperatures for dry milling. Int J Mach Tool Manu 46(10):1139–1145.

  6. 6.

    Jiang F, Liu Z, Wan Y, Shi Z, Zhang H (2016) Experimental investigation of cutting tool temperature during slot milling of AerMet100 steel. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part B Journal of Engineering Manufacture 230(5).

  7. 7.

    Schultz H, Moriwaki T(1992) High-speed machining. Annals of the CIRP 41(2):637–643.

  8. 8.

    Sutter G, Molinari A, Faure L, Klepaczko JR, Dudzinski D (1998) An experimental study of high speed orthogonal cutting. J Manuf Sci Eng 120:169–172

  9. 9.

    Abukhshim NA, Mativenga PT, Sheikh MA (2005) Investigation of heat partition in high speed turning of high strength alloy steel. Int J Mach Tool Manu 45(15):1687–1695.

  10. 10.

    Hou J, Zhou W, Duan H, Yang G, Xu H, Zhao N (2014) Influence of cutting speed on cutting force, flank temperature, and tool wear in end milling of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 70:1835–1845.

  11. 11.

    Huang K, Yang W, Chen Q, He S (2016) An experimental investigation of temperature distribution in workpiece machined surface layer in turning. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 85:1207–1215.

  12. 12.

    Longbottom JM, Lanham JD (2006) A review of research related to Salomon’s hypothesis on cutting speeds and temperatures. Int J Mach Tool Manu 46:1740–1747.

  13. 13.

    Shaw MC (1996) Energy conversion in cutting and grinding. CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 45(1):101–104.

  14. 14.

    Anon (1994) Modern metal cutting-a practical handbook. Sandviken cormorant

  15. 15.

    Elbestawi MA, Srivastava AK, El-Wardany TI (1996) A model for chip formation during machining of hardened steel. CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 45(1):71–76.

  16. 16.

    Hahn F (2003) Untersuchung des zyklisch plastischen Werkstoffverhaltens unter umformnahen Bedingungen. Chemnitz University of Technology, Chemnitz

  17. 17.

    Khan AS, Liu HW (2012) A new approach for ductile fracture prediction on Al2024-T351 alloy. Int J Plast 35:1–12.

  18. 18.

    Johnson GR, Cook WH (1983) A constitutive model and data for metals subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperature. Proceedings of the 7th international symposium on ballistics, Netherlands, pp. 541-547

  19. 19.

    Oxley PLB (1989) Mechanics of machining: an analytical approach to assessing machinability. Ellis Horwood, Chichister

  20. 20.

    Wang B, Liu Z (2016) Evaluation on fracture locus of serrated chip generation with stress triaxiality in high speed machining of Ti6Al4V. Mater Des 98:68–78.

  21. 21.

    Cui X, Guo J, Zhao J, Yan Y (2015) Chip temperature and its effects on chip morphology, cutting forces, and surface roughness in high-speed face milling of hardened steel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 77:2205–2219.

  22. 22.

    Liu Z, Su G (2012) Characteristics of chip evolution with elevating cutting speed from low to very high. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 54-55:82–85.

  23. 23.

    Wang B, Liu Z, Su G, Song Q, Ai X (2015) Investigations of critical cutting speed and ductile-to-brittle transition mechanism for workpiece material in ultra-high speed machining. Int J Mech Sci 104:44–59.

  24. 24.

    Wang B, Liu Z, Su G, Ai X (2015) Brittle removal mechanism of ductile materials with ultra high speed machining. Journal of Manufacturing Science & Engineering 137(6)

  25. 25.

    Hou ZB, Komanduri R (1995) On a thermomechanical model of shear instability in machining. CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 44(1):69–73.

  26. 26.

    Su G, Liu Z (2014) On critical conditions for chip transformation from continuous to serrated in high-speed machining. Key Eng Mater 589-590:232–237.

  27. 27.

    Su LZ (2013) Analytical and experimental study on formation of concentrated shear band of saw tooth chip in high-speed machining. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 65:1735–1740.

  28. 28.

    Su G, Liu Z (2012) Wear characteristics of nano TiAlN-coated carbide tools in ultra-high speed machining of AerMet100. Wear 289:124–131.

  29. 29.

    Soo SL, Hood R, Aspinwal DK, Voice WE, Sage C (2011) Machinability and surface integrity of RR1000 nickel based superalloy. CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology 60(1):89–92.

  30. 30.

    Dowson D, Taylor CM, Childs THC, Godet M, Dalmaz G (1992) Wear particles: from the cradle to the grave. In: proceedings of the 18th Leeds-Lyon symposium on tribology, Lyon, France

  31. 31.

    Yeo S, Ong SH (2000) Assessment of the thermal effects on chip surfaces. J Mater Process Technol 98:317–321.

  32. 32.

  33. 33.

    Yang X, Zhang B (2019) Material embrittlement in high strain-rate loading. International Journal of Extreme Manufacturing 1:022003.

Download references


The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51675289, 51775285), Key Research and Development Plan of Shandong Province (2018GGX103023), and Innovation Team Project of Colleges and Institutions in Jinan City (2018GXRC005).

Author information

Correspondence to Guosheng Su.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Su, G., Xiao, X., Du, J. et al. On cutting temperatures in high and ultrahigh-speed machining. Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2020).

Download citation


  • High-speed machining
  • Cutting temperature
  • Chip morphology
  • Dynamic mechanical property