Advertisement

Numerical analysis of phase transformation characteristics in hot forging and subsequent air cooling processes of Ti-6Al-4V turbine blade

  • Shiyuan LuoEmail author
  • Jia Li
  • Fengping Yu
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 43 Downloads

Abstract

This work is motivated by the fact that for titanium alloys, the phase transformation characteristics of forged parts decided by hot forging operation have a strong genetic effect on the microstructures of cooled parts after subsequent air cooling process, further influencing the mechanical properties of final parts. In this paper, a 3D FE approach embedded with phase transformation models is developed for the numerical prediction of phase transformation characteristics in the hot forging and subsequent air cooling processes of Ti-6Al-4V turbine blade. Then, the temperature and phase distributions of forged and cooled blades are analyzed in detail. Further, two indexes, including average and standard deviation values, are employed to quantitatively reveal the general level and uniformity evolutions of temperature and different phases during the blade hot forging and subsequent air cooling processes. Finally, the validation of simulated results is verified by experiments. The results show that the phase distributions of forged and cooled blades are uneven, and the volume fraction of α phase is mainly influenced by the hot forging process.

Keywords

Blade forging Titanium alloy Phase transformation FE modeling 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Liu YL, Yang H, Zhan M, Fu ZX (2002) A study of the influence of the friction conditions on the forging process of a blade with a tenon. J Mater Process Technol 123(1):42–46Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alimirzaloo V, Biglari FR, Sadeghi MH, Keshtiban PM, Sehat HR (2019) A novel method for preform die design in forging process of an airfoil blade based on Lagrange interpolation and meta-heuristic algorithm. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 102(9–12):4031–4035Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Luo SY, Zhu DH, Hua L, Qian DS, Yan SJ, Yu FP (2016) Effects of process parameters on deformation and temperature uniformity of forged Ti-6Al-4V turbine blade. J Mater Eng Perform 25(11):4824–4836Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Luo SY, Zhu DH, Qian DS, Hua L, Yan SJ, Zhang JJ (2016) Effects of friction model on forging process of Ti-6Al-4V turbine blade considering the influence of sliding velocity. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 82(9–12):1993–2002Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Luo SY, Zhu DH, Hua L, Qian DS, Yan SJ (2017) Numerical analysis of die wear characteristics in hot forging of titanium alloy turbine blade. Int J Mech Sci 123:260–270Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Guo BQ, Jr CA, Foul A, Fall A, Jahazi M, Jonas JJ (2018) Effect of multipass deformation at elevated temperatures on the flow behavior and microstructural evolution in Ti-6Al-4V. Mater Sci Eng A 729:119–124Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Lin YC, Jiang XY, Shuai CJ, Zhao CY, He DG, Chen MS, Chen C (2018) Effects of initial microstructures on hot tensile deformation behaviors and fracture characteristics of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 711:293–302Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wu B, Pan Z, Li S, Cuiuri D, Ding D, Li H (2018) The anisotropic corrosion behaviour of wire arc additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V alloy in 3.5% NaCl solution. Corros Sci 137:176–183Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Crupi V, Epasto G, Guglielmino E, Squillace A (2017) Influence of microstructure [alpha + beta and beta] on very high cycle fatigue behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Int J Fatigue 95:64–75Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang QQ, Liu ZQ, Yang D, Mohsan AUH (2017) Metallurgical-based prediction of stress-temperature induced rapid heating and cooling phase transfermations for high speed machining Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Mater Des 119:208–218Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Malinov S, Markovsky P, Sha W, Guo Z (2001) Resistivity study and computer modelling of the isothermal transformation kinetics of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo-0.08Si alloys. J Alloys Comp 314(1):181–192Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pan ZP, Liang SY, Garmestani H, Shih DS (2016) Prediction of machining-induced phase transformation and grain growth of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 87:859–866Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bruschi S, Buffa G, Ducato A, Fratini L, Ghiotti A (2015) Phase evolution in hot forging of dual phase titanium alloys: experiments and numerical analysis. J Manuf Process 20(2):382–388Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Quan GZ, Pan J, Zhang ZH (2016) Phase transformation and recrystallization kinetics in space-time domain during isothermal compressions for Ti-6Al-4V analyzed by multi-field and multi-scale coupling FEM. Mater Des 94:523–535Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Astarita A, Ducato A, Fratini L, Paradiso V, Velotti C (2013) Beta forging of Ti-6Al-4V: microstructure evolution and mechanical properties. Key Eng Mater 554-557:359–371Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Buffa G, Ducato A, Fratini L (2013) FEM based prediction of phase transformations during friction stir welding of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 581:56–65Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ducato A, Buffa G, Fratini L, Shivpuri R (2015) Dual phase titanium alloy hot forging process design: experiments and numerical modeling. Adv Manuf 3(4):269–281Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yu HQ, Chen JD (1999) Principles of metal forming. China Machine Press, Beijing (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Akgerman N, Altan T (1976) Application of CAD/CAM in forging turbine and compressor blades. J Eng Gas Turbines Power 8(2):290–296Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Aksenov LB, Chitkara NR, Johnson W (1975) Pressure and deformation in the plane strain pressing of circular section bar to form turbine blades. Int J Mech Sci 17(11–12):681–691zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hu ZM, Brooks JW, Dean TA (1999) Experimental and theoretical analysis of deformation and microstructural evolution in the hot-die forging of titanium alloy aerofoil sections. J Mater Process Technol 88(1):251–265Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Huang SH, Zong YY, Shan DB (2013) Application of thermohydrogen processing to Ti6Al4V alloy blade isothermal forging. Mater Sci Eng A 561:17–25Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Torabi SHR, Alibabaei S, Bonab BB, Sadeghi MH, Faraji GH (2017) Design and optimization of turbine blade preform forging using RSM and NSGA II. J Intell Manuf 28(6):1409–1419Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Shao Y, Lu B, Xu DK, Chen J, Ou H, Long H, Guo PY (2016) Topology-based preform design optimization for blade forging. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 86:1593–1605Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chen F, Ren FC, Chen J, Cui ZS, Ou HG (2016) Microstructural modeling and numerical simulation of multi-physical fields for martensitic stainless steel during hot forging process of turbine blade. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 86(1–4):85–98Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Souza PM, Mendiguren J, Chao Q, Beladi H, Hodgson PD, Rolfe B (2019) A microstructural based constitutive approach for simulating hot deformation of Ti6Al4V alloy in the α + β phase region. Mater Sci Eng A 748:30–37Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Suárez A, Tobar MJ, Yánez A, Pérez I, Sampedro J, Amigó V, Candel JJ (2011) Modeling of phase transformations of Ti6Al4V during laser metal deposition. Phys Procedia 12:666–673Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cai J, Wang KS, Zhai P, Li FG, Yang J (2015) A modified Johnson-cook constitutive equation to predict hot deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. J Mater Eng Perform 24(1):32–44Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pereira RBD, Lauro CH, Brandão LC, Ferreira DJP (2019) Tool wear in dry helical milling for hole-making in AISI H13 hardened steel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 101:2425–2439Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    JMatPro Demo version, Sente Software Ltd., Surrey Technology Centre 40 Occam Road GU2 7YG United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kim KT, Yang HC (2001) Densification behavior of titanium alloy powder during hot pressing. Mater Sci Eng A 313(1):46–52Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Alimirzaloo V, Sadeghi MH, Biglari FR (2012) Optimization of the forging of aerofoil blade using the finite element method and fuzzy-Pareto based genetic algorithm. J Mech Sci Technol 26(6):1801–1810Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hu HJ, Huang WJ (2013) Studies on wears of ultrafine-grained ceramic tool and common ceramic tool during hard turning using Archard wear model. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 69(1–4):31–39Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hu CL, Ding TR, Ou HG, Zhao Z (2019) Effect of tooling surface on friction conditions in cold forging of an aluminum alloy. Tribol Int 131:353–362Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zhang DW, Li SP, Jing F, Fan SQ, Zhao SD (2018) Initial position optimization of preform for large-scale strut forging. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94(5–8):2803–2810Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dovzhenko G, Hanke S, Staron P, Maawad E, Schreyer A, Horstmann M (2018) Residual stresses and fatigue crack growth in friction surfacing coated Ti-6Al-4V sheets. J Mater Process Technol 262:104–110Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chen SY, Qin Y, Chen JG, Choy MC (2018) A forging method for reducing process steps in the forming of automotive fasteners. Int J Mech Sci 137:1–14Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zafari A, Barati MR, Xia K (2019) Controlling martensitic decomposition during selective laser melting to achieve best ductility in high strength Ti-6Al-4V. Mater Sci Eng A 744:445–455Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Baseri H, Sadeghian S (2016) Effect of nanopowder TiO2-mixed dielectric and rotary tool on EDM. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 83(1–4):519–528Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lu XF, Chiumenti M, Cervera M, Hu YL, Ji XL, Ma L, Huang WD (2019) In situ measurements and thermos-mechanical simulation of Ti-6Al-4V laser solid forming processes. Int J Mech Sci 153-154:119–130Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zhou WB, Lin JG, Dean TA, Wang LL (2018) Feasibility studies of a novel extrusion process for curved profiles: experimentation and modelling. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 126:27–43Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Thepsonthi T, Özel T (2015) 3-D finite element process simulation of micro-end milling Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy: experimental validations on chip flow and tool wear. J Mater Process Technol 221:128–145Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bai SW, Fang G, Zhou J (2019) Integrated physical and numerical simulations of weld seam formation during extrusion of magnesium alloy. J Mater Process Technol 266:82–95Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sun ZC, Yang H, Guo XF (2013) FE analysis on deformation and temperature nonuniformity in forming of AISI-5140 triple valve by multi-way loading. J Mater Eng Perform 22(2):358–365Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Dąbrowski R (2011) The kinetics of phase transfermations during continuous cooling of the Ti6Al4V alloy from the single-phase β range. Arch Metall Mater 56(3):703–707Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Metallurgical Equipment and Control Technology, Ministry of Education, School of Machinery and AutomationWuhan University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  2. 2.Hubei Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission and Manufacturing Engineering, School of Machinery and AutomationWuhan University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  3. 3.Technology Center, Wuxi Turbine Blade Co., Ltd.WuxiChina

Personalised recommendations