Feasibility investigation of neem oil as a dielectric for electrical discharge machining

  • Shirsendu DasEmail author
  • Swarup Paul
  • Biswanath Doloi


This article has been addressed various sustainability aspects of EDM and introduced transesterified neem as a green dielectric. Here, the machining is performed at 4–16 A of current, 50–250 μs of pulse on time, 10–50 μs of pulse off time, and 20-50 V of gap voltage using both the kerosene and neem as a dielectric medium. The comparative assessment of the obtained responses claims that the neem dielectric exhibits 22% more removal rate and 17% less surface roughness than kerosene. Apart from these, the impact of each dielectric on the texture of processed surfaces has been assessed with the help of the microscopic images captured with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Finally, the sustainability evaluation is performed to check the feasibility of the neem oil as a reliable dielectric of EDM. It is observed that the neem dielectric is capable of ensuring comparatively fine surface textures due to the repeated overlapping of the radially extended craters and consumes less time to attain the targeted removal depth (RD). Therefore, based on the results, the neem dielectric can be recommended as a potent and reliable alternative of conventional kerosene.


Dielectric Fluid Neem oil MRR SR Sustainability evaluation 



The authors are really thankful to Dr. Syed Arshad Hussain and Mr. Mispaur Rahaman of Central Instrumentation Centre, Tripura University for their support and help during the surface characterization


  1. 1.
    Ahmed N, Ishfaq K, Moiduddin K, Ali R (2018) Al-Shammary, N. Machinability of titanium alloy through electric discharge machining. Mater Manuf Process 34(1):1–10Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dileep R, Mishra K, Datta S, Masanta M (2018) Effects of tool electrode on EDM performance of Ti-6Al 4 V. Silicon 10(5):2263–2277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Marashia H, Jafarlou DM, Sarhana AAD, Hamdi M (2016) State of the art in powder mixed dielectric for EDM applications. Precis Eng 46:11–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shabgard M, Khosrozadeh B (2017) Investigation of carbon nano tube added dielectric on the surface characteristics and machining performance of Ti–6Al–4 V alloy in EDM process. J Manuf Process 25:212–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pavithradevi S, Suriyanarayanan N, Boobalan T (2016) Synthesis, structural, dielectric and magnetic properties of polyol assisted copper ferrite nano particles. J Magn Magn Mater 126:137–143Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pecas P, Henriques E (2003) Influence of silicon powder-mixed dielectric on conventional electrical discharge machining. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 43:1465–1471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Valaki JB, Rathod PP, Sidpara AM (2019) In: Gupta K (ed) Sustainability issues in electric discharge machining. Springer, Cham, pp 53–75. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Valaki JB, Rathod PP, Sankhavara CD (2016) Investigations on technical feasibility of Jatropha curcas oil based bio dielectric fluid for sustainable electric discharge machining (EDM). J Manuf Process 22:151–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Valaki JB, Rathod PP (2015) Assessment of operational feasibility of waste vegetable oil based bio-dielectric fluid for sustainable electric discharge machining (EDM). Int J Adv Manuf Technol 87:1509–1518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ng PS, Kong SA, Yeo SH (2016) Investigation of biodiesel dielectric in sustainable electrical discharge machining. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90:2549–2556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Valaki JB, Rathod PP (2016) Investigating feasibility through performance analysis of green dielectrics for sustainable electric discharge machining. Mater Manuf Process 31:541–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ji R, Liu Y, Zhang Y, Cai B, Ma J, Li X (2012) Influence of dielectric and machining parameters on the process performance for electric discharge milling of SiC ceramic. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 59(1-4):127–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ji R, Liu Y, Zhang Y, Wang F (2011) Machining performance of silicon carbide ceramic in end electric discharge milling. Int J Refract Met Hard Mater 29(1):117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Ji R, Liu Y, Zhang Y, Cai B, Li H, Ma J (2010) Optimizing machining parameters of silicon carbide ceramics with ED milling and mechanical grinding combined process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 51(1-4):195–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Djibril D, Mamadou F, Gérard V, Geuye MDC, Luc SO (2015) Physical characteristics, chemical composition and distribution of constituents of the neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) collected in Senegal. Res J Chem Sci 5(7):52–58Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nair JN, Kaviti AK, Daram AK (2017) Analysis of performance and emission on compression ignition engine fuelled with blends of neem biodiesel. Egypt J Pet 26:927–931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Das S, Paul S, Doloi BN (2019) An experimental and computational study on the feasibility of bio dielectrics for sustainable electrical discharge machining. J Manuf Process 41:284–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sekhar MC, Mamill VR, Mallikarjun MVK, Reddy KVK (2009) Production of biodiesel from neem oil. Int J Eng Stud 1(4):295–302Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Umar S, Abdelmalik AA, Sadiq U (2018) Synthesis and characterization of a potential bio-based dielectric fluid from neem oil seed. Ind Crops Products 115:117–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kiyak M, Aldemir BE, Altan E (2015) Effects of discharge energy density on wear rate and surface roughness in EDM. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 79:513–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Giakoumis EG (2013) A statistical investigation of biodiesel physical and chemical properties and their correlation with the degree of unsaturation. Renew Energy 50:858–878CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang X, Liu Z, Xue R, Tian Z, Huang Y (2014) Research on the influence of dielectric characteristics on the EDM of titanium alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 72:979–787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lin YC, Cheng CH, Su BL, Hwang LR (2006) Machining characteristics and optimization of machining parameters of SKH 57 high-speed steel using electrical-discharge machining based on Taguchi method. Mater Manuf Process 21:922–929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fonseca J, Marafona JD (2013) The effect of deionisation time on the electrical dis-charge machining performance. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 71:471–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shabgard M, Seyedzavvar M, Oliaei SNB (2011) Influence of input parameters on the characteristics of the EDM process. J Mech Eng 57:689–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wu KL, Yan BH, Huang FY, Chen SC (2005) Improvement of surface finish on SKD steel using electro-discharge machining with aluminum and surfactant added dielectric. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45:1195–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kibria G, Sarkar BR, Pradhan BB, Bhattacharyya B (2010) Comparative study of different dielectrics for micro-EDM performance during micro hole machining of Ti-6Al-4 V alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 48:557–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Production Engineering Department NITAgartalaIndia
  2. 2.Production Engineering DepartmentJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations