Advertisement

Air bearing: academic insights and trend analysis

  • Guoda Chen
  • Bingfeng Ju
  • Hui Fang
  • Yijie Chen
  • Nan Yu
  • Yuehua WanEmail author
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 56 Downloads

Abstract

The development of air bearing demands further research and certain guidance. The previous technical reviews focused on specific aspects, while bibliometric analysis employed in this paper gave a general overview on air bearing field and provided clearer research interest and development trend. The publications in the field of air bearing from 1990 to 2017 based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) database were analyzed from the aspects of countries, institutions, research areas, journals, authors, keywords, reviews, and high cited papers, implemented by some representative and convincing indicators. The result showed that the USA held the dominant position in this field, followed by Japan and China. The University of California System held the top position in terms of total papers and h-indexes. It had shown a multi-disciplinary development trend of air bearings from the aspect of research area. Tribology related journal took high ranking of the list, in which “Journal of Tribology-Transactions of the ASME” ranked first. Bogy, D. B., made most contributions to the air bearing field, with the highest total citations and h-index. Thermal effects, foil bearing, dynamic analysis, and active compensation were hotspots. Reynolds equation, stability, optimization, load-carrying capacity, foil bearings, and aerostatic bearings were potential directions that might have greater opportunities for improvement. The improvement of air bearing requires common progress in multiple aspects.

Keywords

Air bearing Air lubrication Academic insights Trend Ultra-precision Bibliometrics 

Notes

Funding information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51705462), the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. LQ16E050012), and the Talent Project of Zhejiang Association for Science and Technology (Grant No. 2018YCGC016).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Powell JW (1970) Design of aerostatic bearing. The Machinery Publishing Co. Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Filipe N, Kontitsis M, Tsiotras P (2015) Extended Kalman filter for spacecraft pose estimation using dual quaternions. J Guid Control Dyn 38(9):1625–1641Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mendoza-Bárcenas MA, Vicente-Vivas E, Rodríguez-Cortés H (2014) Mechatronic design, dynamic modeling and results of a satellite flight simulator for experimental validation of satellite attitude determination and control schemes in 3-Axis. J Appl Res Technol 12(3):370–383Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chu CS, Shan JY (2012) Application of passive seeker/altimeter in air guided munition’s end-guidance phase. Adv Mater Res 433-440:6959–6964Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schwartz JL, Hall CD, Peck MA (2003) Historical review of air-bearing spacecraft simulators. J Guid Control Dyn 26(4):513–522Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kim D, Creary A, Chang SS (2009) Mesoscale foil gas bearings for palm-sized Turbomachinery: design, manufacturing, and modeling. J Eng Gas Turbines Power-Trans ASME 131(4):1–10Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ciarcià M, Cristi R, Romano MM (2017) Emulating scaled Clohessy–Wiltshire dynamics on an air-bearing spacecraft simulation testbed. J Guid Control Dyn 40(10):2496–2510Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lyu W, Dai S, Dong Y, Shen YL, Song XZ, Wang TS (2017) Attitude motion compensation for imager on Fengyun-4 geostationary meteorological satellite. Acta Astronaut 138:290–294Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Juang JY, Bogy DB (2007) Air-bearing effects on actuated thermal pole-tip protrusion for hard disk drives. J Tribol Trans ASME 129(3):570–578Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wu L, Bogy DB (2002) Effect of the intermolecular forces on the flying attitude of sub-5 NM flying height air bearing sliders in hard disk drives. J Tribol Trans ASME 124(3):562–567Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jayson EM, Murphy J, Smith PW (2003) Effects of air bearing stiffness on a hard disk drive subject to shock and vibration. J Tribol Trans ASME 125(2):343–349Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhang B, Nakajima A (2003) Possibility of surface force effect in slider air bearings of 100 Gbit/in 2 hard disks. Tribol Int 36(4):291–296Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yu SK, Liu B, Hua W, Zhou WD (2006) Contact-induced off-track vibrations of air bearing-slider-suspension system in hard disk drives. Tribol Lett 24(1):27–36Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Margarido A, Purquerio BM, Foschini CR, Fortulan CA (2016) Influence of the green-machining parameters on the mechanical properties of alumina rods. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88(9–12):3475–3484Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Akhondzadeh M, Vahdati M (2014) Study of variable depth air pockets on air spindle vibrations in ultra-precision machine tools. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 73(5–8):681–686Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Geng Y, Wang Y, Yan Y, Zhao XS (2017) A novel AFM-based 5-axis nanoscale machine tool for fabrication of, nanostructures on a micro ball. Rev Sci Instrum 88(11)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shinno H, Hashizume H, Yoshioka H, Komatsu K, Shinshi T, Sato K (2004) X-Y-theta nano-positioning table system for a mother machine. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 53(1):337–340Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen GD, Sun YZ, Zhang FH, Chen WQ, An CH, Su H (2017) Influence of ultra-precision flycutting spindle error on surface frequency domain error formation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88(9):3233–3241Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chen GD, Sun YZ, Zhang FH, Lu LH, Chen WQ, Yu N (2018) Dynamic accuracy design method of ultra-precision machine tool. Chin J Mech Eng 31(1)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chen DJ, Huo C, Cui XX, Pan R, Fan JW, An CH (2018) Investigation the gas film in micro scale induced error on the performance of the aerostatic spindle in ultra-precision machining. Mech Syst Signal Proc 105:488–501Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ise T, Nakatsuka M, Nagao K, Matsubara M, Kawamura S, Asami T, Kinugawa T, Nishimura K (2017) Externally pressurized gas journal bearing with slot restrictors arranged in the axial direction. Precis Eng J Int Soc Precis Eng Nanotechnol 50:286–292Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nishi F, Katsura S (2015) On-line identification and compensation for sensor-less force feedback using macro-micro bilateral control. 8th Annual IEEE/SICE International Symposium on System Integration, Meijo Univ, Nagoya, JAPANGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ise T, Arita N, Asami T, Nakajima T, Kawashima I, Maeda T (2014) Development of externally pressurized small-size conical-shaped gas bearings for micro rotary machines. Precis Eng J Int Soc Precis Eng Nanotechnol 38(3):506–511Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Raparelli T, Viktorov V, Colombo F, Lentini L (2016) Aerostatic thrust bearings active compensation: critical review. Precis Eng J Int Soc Precis Eng Nanotechnol 44:1–12Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Leach RK, Flack DR, Hughes EB, Jones CW (2009) Development of a new traceable areal surface texture measuring instrument. Wear 266(5–6):552–554Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Marsh E, Schalcosky D, Couey J, Ryan V (2006) Analysis and performance of a parallel axis flatness measuring instrument. Rev Sci Instrum 77(2)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Meli F, Jeanmonod N, Thiess C, Thalmann R (2001) Calibration of a 2D reference mirror system of a photomask measuring instrument. Proc SPIE 4401:227–233Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bos E, Moers T, Van Riel M (2015) Design and verification of an ultra-precision 3D-coordinate measuring machine with parallel drives. Meas Sci Technol 26(8)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fan KC, Ho CC, Mou JI (2002) Development of a multiple-microhole aerostatic air bearing system. J Micromech Microeng 12(5):636–643Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mao J, Tachikawa H, Shimokohbe A (2003) Precision positioning of a DC-motor-driven aerostatic slide system. Precis Eng J Int Soc Precis Eng Nanotechnol 27(1):32–41Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chen D, Fan J, Zhang F (2011) Diagnosis of gas fluctuations of aerostatic guideway. Measurement 44(2):434–444Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Aoyama T (2004) Development of gel structured electrorheological fluids and their application for the precision clamping mechanism of aerostatic sliders. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 53(1):325–328MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Chen GD, Sun YZ, An CH, Zhang FH, Sun ZJ, Chen WQ (2018) Measurement and analysis for frequency domain error of ultra-precision spindle in a flycutting machine tool. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 232(9):1501–1507Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chen DJ, Cui XX, Fan JW (2018) A prediction and evaluation system of the impact factors on the performance of the aerostatic slider. Robot Comput Integr Manuf 50:213–221Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yang LH, Li HG, Yu L (2007) Dynamic stiffness and damping coefficients of aerodynamic tilting-pad journal bearings. Tribol Int 40(9):1399–1410Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ladislav P, Jan K (2007) Evolutive and nonlinear vibrations of rotor on aerodynamic bearings. Nonlinear Dyn 50(4):829–840zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Li Y, Lei G, Sun Y, Wang L (2017) Effect of environmental pressure enhanced by a booster on the load capacity of the aerodynamic gas bearing of a turbo expander. Tribol Int 105:77–84Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lo CY, Wang CC, Lee YH (2005) Performance analysis of high-speed spindle aerostatic bearings. Tribol Int 38(1):5–14Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Liu ZS, Zhang GH, Xu HJ (2009) Performance analysis of rotating externally pressurized air bearings. Proc Inst Mech Eng J J Eng Tribol 223(4):653–663Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yao SM, Ma HW, Wang LQ (2011) Aerostatic & aerodynamic performance of a herringbone thrust bearing: analysis and comparisons to static load experiments. Tribol Trans 54(3):370–383Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wang XK, Xu Q, Wang BR, Zhang LX, Yang H, Peng ZK (2016) Numerical calculation of rotation effects on hybrid air journal bearings. Tribol Trans 60(2):195–207Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yoshimoto S, Kobayashi H, Miyatake M (2007) Float characteristics of a squeeze-film air bearing for a linear motion guide using ultrasonic vibration. Tribol Int 40(3):503–511Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Stolarski TA (2010) Numerical modeling and experimental verification of compressible squeeze film pressure. Tribol Int 43(1):356–360Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yoshimoto S, Anno Y, Sato Y, Hamanaka K (1997) Float characteristics of squeeze-film gas bearing with elastic hinges for linear motion guide. JSME Int J Ser C 40(2):353–359Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ono YJ, Yoshimoto S, Miyatake M (2009) Impulse-load dynamics of squeeze film gas bearings for a linear motion guide. J Tribol Trans ASME 131(4)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bhat N, Kumar S, Tan W, Narasimhan R, Low TC (2012) Performance of inherently compensated flat pad aerostatic bearings subject to dynamic perturbation forces. Precis Eng J Int Soc Precis Eng Nanotechnol 36(3):399–407Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Al-Bender F, Van BH (1992) Symmetric radial laminar channel flow with particular reference to aerostatic bearings. J Tribol Trans ASME 114(3):630–636Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Miyatake M, Yoshimoto S (2010) Numerical investigation of static and dynamic characteristics of aerostatic thrust bearings with small feed holes. Tribol Int 43(8):1353–1359Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wang X, Xu Q, Wang B, Zhang LX, Yang H, Peng ZK (2016) Effect of surface waviness on the static performance of aerostatic journal bearings. Tribol Int 103:394–405Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Arakere N, Nelson HD (1992) An analysis of gas-lubricated foil-journal bearings. Tribol Trans 35(1):1–10Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Faria MTC, Andres LS (2000) On the numerical modeling of high-speed hydrodynamic gas bearings. J Tribol Trans ASME 122(1):124–130Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fourka M, Tian Y, Bonis M (1996) Prediction of the stability of air thrust bearings by numerical, analytical and experimental methods. Wear 198(1–2):1–6Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Charki A, Diop K, Champmartin S, Ambari A (2013) Numerical simulation and experimental study of thrust air bearings with multiple orifices. Int J Mech Sci 72(3):28–38Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Huang W, Bogy DB, Garcia AL (1997) Three-dimensional direct simulation Monte Carlo method for slider air bearings. Phys Fluids 9(6):1764–1769Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kang TS, Choi DH, Jeong TG (2001) Optimal design of HDD air-lubricated slider bearings for improving dynamic characteristics and operating performance. J Tribol Trans ASME 123(3):541–547Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Yang DW, Chen CH, Kang Y, Hwang RM, Shyr SS (2009) Influence of orifices on stability of rotor-aerostatic bearing system. Tribol Int 42(8):1206–1219Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Chen CH, Yang DW, Kang Y, Hwang RM, Shyr SS (2009) The influence of orifice restriction on the stability of rigid rotor-aerostatic bearing system. Proc ASME Turbo Expo 6(PART B):909–917Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Yang LH, Qi SM, Yu L (2009) Analysis on dynamic performance of hydrodynamic tilting-pad gas bearings using partial derivative method. J Tribol Trans ASME 131(1):1–8Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Jia CH, Pang HJ, Ma WS (2017) Analysis of dynamic characteristics and stability prediction of gas bearings. Ind Lubr Tribol 69(2):123–130Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wang CC (2010) Application of a hybrid numerical method to the nonlinear dynamic analysis of a micro gas bearing system. Nonlinear Dyn 59(4):695–710zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Ma W, Cui J, Liu Y, Tan JB (2016) Improving the pneumatic hammer stability of aerostatic thrust bearing with recess using damping orifices. Tribol Int 103:281–288Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hu Y, Bogy DB (1997) Dynamic stability and spacing modulation of sub-25 nm fly height sliders. J Tribol Trans ASME 119(4):646–652Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Leung TP, Lee WB, Lu XM (1998) Diamond turning of silicon substrates in ductile-regime. J Mater Process Technol 73(1–3):42–48Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Gao W, Dejima S, Yanai H, Katakura K, Kiyono S, Tomita Y (2004) A surface motor-driven planar motion stage integrated with an XY0Z surface encoder for precision positioning. Precis Eng J Int Soc Precis Eng Nanotechnol 28(3):329–337Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Uesugi K, Suzuki Y, Yagi N, Tsuchiyama A, Nakano T (2001) Development of high spatial resolution X-ray CT system at BL47XU in SPring-8. Nucl Instrum Methods Phys Res Sect A-Accel Spectrom Dect Assoc Equip 467(7):853–856Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chen XD, He XM (2006) The effect of the recess shape on performance analysis of the gas-lubricated bearing in optical lithography. Tribol Int 39(11):1336–1341Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sharpe WN, Yuan B, Edwards RL (1997) A new technique for measuring the mechanical properties of thin films. J Microelectromech Syst 6(3):193–199Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Altintas Y, Verl A, Brecher C, Uriarte L, Pritschow G (2011) Machine tool feed drives. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 60(2):779–796Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dellacorte C, Valco MJ (2000) Load capacity estimation of foil air journal bearings for oil-free turbomachinery applications. Tribol Trans 43(4):795–801Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gupta BK, Bhushan B (1995) Mechanical and tribological properties of hard carbon coatings for magnetic recording heads. Wear 190(1):110–122Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Küng A, Meli F, Thalmann R (2007) Ultraprecision micro-CMM using a low force 3D touch probe. Meas Sci Technol 18(2):319–327Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Ishihara S (1996) Positioning technology in X-ray lithography. Int J Japan Soc Precis Eng 30(2):103–106Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Yoshimoto S (1997) Trends in gas bearings. J JPN Soc Tribol 42(12):966–971Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tokuyama M, Kawakubo Y (1998) Near contact magnetic recording head-disk interface. J JPN Soc Tribol 43(5):363–369Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kwan YBP, Corbett J Porous aerostatic bearings–an updated review. Wear 222(2):69–73Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Park CH, Lee ES, Lee H (1999) Review on research in ultraprecision engineering at KIMM. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 39(11):1793–1805Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Al-Bender F (2009) On the modelling of the dynamic characteristics of aerostatic bearing films: from stability analysis to active compensation. Precis Eng-J Int Soc Precis Eng Nanotechnol 33(2):117–126Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    White J (2010) A gas lubrication equation for high Knudsen number flows and striated rough surfaces. J Tribol-Trans ASME 132(2):1–9Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bhore SP, Darpe AK (2014) Rotordynamics of micro and mesoscopic turbomachinery - a review. J Vib Eng Technol 2(1):1–9Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Dupont R (2015) Robust rotor dynamics for high-speed air bearing spindles. Precis Eng J Int Soc Precis Eng Nanotechnol 40:7–13Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Zhou Q, Li Y, Lu P (2016) Studies on thermal effects in aerodynamic foil journal bearings. J Adv Mech Des Syst Manuf 10(1)Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Branagan M, Griffin D, Goyne C, Untaroiu A (2015) Compliant gas foil bearings and analysis tools. J Eng Gas Turbines Power-Trans ASME 138(5)Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Maraiy SY, Crosby WA, El-Gamal HA (2016) Thermohydrodynamic analysis of airfoil bearing based on bump foil structure. Alex Eng J 55(3):2473–2483Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guoda Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bingfeng Ju
    • 1
  • Hui Fang
    • 3
  • Yijie Chen
    • 2
  • Nan Yu
    • 4
  • Yuehua Wan
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Fluid Power and Mechatronic systemsZhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of E&M, Ministry of Education & Zhejiang ProvinceZhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouChina
  3. 3.Library, Zhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouChina
  4. 4.Centre of Micro/Nano Manufacturing TechnologiesUniversity College DublinDublin 4Ireland

Personalised recommendations