High-speed milling of CFRP composites: a progressive damage model of cutting force

  • Lifeng Zhang
  • Sheng Wang
  • Weilin Qiao
  • Zhan Li
  • Ning Wang
  • Jin Zhang
  • Tao WangEmail author


Three-dimensional Hashin failure criterion and material stiffness degradation model were compiled by VUMAT subroutine. The Abaqus/Explicit solver was performed to establish progressive damage model of cutting force for CFRP high-speed milling, and high-speed milling experiments with different cutting parameters were carried out. Further, the impact mechanism of fiber cutting angle and cutting parameters on cutting force, stress, and material failure during milling was explored, and the material removal mechanism in high-speed milling of CFRP was revealed. The results show that the error between the experimental and simulated of cutting forces is less than 5%, which indicates that the progressive damage model is feasible. The fiber cutting angle has significant influence on cutting force and stress in cutting process, and the cutting direction has a significant influence on cutting force. In addition, cutting parameters play a critical role in cutting force, and the feed per tooth is the most significant factor affecting the cutting force. Simultaneously, the progressive damage model predicts that the shear failure of materials mainly concentrates in the cutting area and extends along the feed direction. Finally, the material removal mechanism of CFRP in high-speed milling was revealed combining cutting force experiment.


Progressive damage model VUMAT subroutine High-speed milling Cutting force Material removal mechanism 


Funding information

This study received financial support from the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 3122018C007), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51705518), the United National Science Funds and Civil Aviation Funds (No. U1633104), and the Open Funds of the State Key Lab of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology (No. DMETKF2017018).


  1. 1.
    Geier N, Szalay T, Takács M (2019) Analysis of thrust force and characteristics of uncut fibres at non-conventional oriented drilling of unidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (UD-CFRP) composite laminates. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 100(9–12):3139–3154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liu WS, He ZP, Yu F, Qing GH (2019) A progressive damage model introducing temperature field for bolted composite joint with preload. Model Simul Mater Sci Eng 27(6):065011CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Li H, Qin XD, He GY, Jin Y, Sun D, Price M (2016) Investigation of chip formation and fracture toughness in orthogonal cutting of UD-CFRP. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 82(5–8):1079–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahmad J (2009) Machining of polymer composites. Springer pages 75–77Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Oh S, Lee I, Park YB, Ki H (2019) Investigation of cut quality in fiber laser cutting of CFRP. Opt Laser Technol 113:129–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gara S, Tsoumarev O (2016) Effect of tool geometry on surface roughness in slotting of CFRP. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 86(1–4):451–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Geier N, Szalay T (2017) Optimisation of process parameters for the orbital and conventional drilling of unidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced polymers (UD-CFRP). Measurement 110:319–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sui J, Wang C (2019) Machinability study of unidirectional CFRP laminates by slot milling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 100(1–4):189–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    He YL, Qing HN, Zhang SG, Wang DZ, Zhu SW (2017) The cutting force and defect analysis in milling of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 93(5–8):1829–1842CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karpat Y, Bahtiyar O, Değer B (2012) Mechanistic force modeling for milling of unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 56:79–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ozkana D, Goka MS, Ogea M, Karaoglanli AC (2018) Milling behavior analysis of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. Mater Sci 2214(7853):2019Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Calzada KA, Kapoora SG, DeVor RE, Samuel J, Srivastava AK (2012) Modeling and interpretation of fiber orientation-based failure mechanisms in machining of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composites. J Manuf Process 14(2):141–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li H, Qin XD, Huang T, Liu XP, Sun D, Jin Y (2018) Machining quality and cutting force signal analysis in UD-CFRP milling under different fiber orientation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 98(9–12):2377–2387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang F, Yin J, Ma J (2017) Effects of cutting edge radius and fiber cutting angle on the cutting-induced surface damage in machining of unidirectional CFRP composite laminates. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91(9–12):3107–3120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Geier N, Szalay T, Biró I (2018) Trochoid milling of carbon fibre-reinforced plastics (CFRP). Procedia CIRP 77:375–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang C, Liu G, An Q (2017) Occurrence and formation mechanism of surface cavity defects during orthogonal milling of CFRP laminates. Compos Part B-Eng 109:10–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hintze W, Cordes M, Koerkel G (2015) Influence of weave structure on delamination when milling CFRP. J Mater Process Tech 216:199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen Y, Guo X, Zhang K (2019) Study on the surface quality of CFRP machined by micro-textured milling tools. J Manuf Process 37:114–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Abena A, Essa K (2019) 3D micro-mechanical modelling of orthogonal cutting of UD-CFRP using smoothed particle hydrodynamics and finite element methods. Compos StructGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Abena A, Soo SL, Essa K (2017) Modelling the orthogonal cutting of UD-CFRP composites: development of a novel cohesive zone model. Compos Struct 168:65–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Su Y (2019) Effect of the cutting speed on the cutting mechanism in machining CFRP. Compos Struct 220:662–676CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rao GVG, Mahajan P, Bhatnagar N (2008) Three-dimensional macro-mechanical finite element model for machining of unidirectional-fiber reinforced polymer composites. Mat Sci Eng A-Struct 498(1–2):142–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Feito N, López-Puente J, Santiuste C (2014) Numerical prediction of delamination in CFRP drilling[J]. Compos Struct 108:677–683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Rentsch R, Pecat O, Brinksmeier E (2011) Macro and micro process modeling of the cutting of carbon fiber reinforced plastics using FEM. Procedia Eng 10:1823–1828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Xu H, Hu J (2017) Modeling of the material removal and heat affected zone formation in CFRP short pulsed laser processing. Appl Math Model 46:354–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ghafarizadeh S, Chatelain JF, Lebrun G (2016) Finite element analysis of surface milling of carbon fiber-reinforced composites. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 87(1–4):399–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gao C, Xiao J, Xu J (2016) Factor analysis of machining parameters of fiber-reinforced polymer composites based on finite element simulation with experimental investigation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 83(5–8):1113–1125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Soden P D, Hinton M J, Kaddour A S (2004) Lamina properties, lay-up configurations and loading conditions for a range of fibre reinforced composite laminates//failure criteria in fibre-reinforced-polymer composites. Elsevier: 30-51Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chakladar ND, Mandal P, Potluri P (2014) Effects of inter-tow angle and tow size on carbon fibre friction. Compos Part A-Appl S 65:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lifeng Zhang
    • 1
  • Sheng Wang
    • 1
  • Weilin Qiao
    • 1
  • Zhan Li
    • 1
  • Ning Wang
    • 1
  • Jin Zhang
    • 1
  • Tao Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.College of Aeronautical EngineeringCivil Aviation University of ChinaTianjinChina

Personalised recommendations