Study on influence of grinding depth and grain shape on grinding damage of K9 glass by SPH simulation

  • Xiaoguang Guo
  • Ruifeng ZhaiEmail author
  • Yutong Shi
  • Renke Kang
  • Zhuji Jin
  • Dongming Guo


This work use the SPH method to study the relationship between grinding depth and grinding force of K9 glass in ultra-precision grinding, and the effect of grain shape on material removal. The relationship between the force and the depth in the stable scratching stage is FR = 0.55078ap1.15356, which provides a basis for controlling the grinding depth by force. The material removal modes at different grinding depths were obtained, that is, plastic removal occurs below 0.2 μm, brittle transition occurs between 0.2 and 0.4 μm, and brittle removal occurs at more than 0.5 μm. It is found that the cutting resultant force of sharp grains is smaller and the normal force is smaller than the tangential force. By analyzing the plastic deformation depth and residual stress depth, it is found that the material removal mode with small deformation and little removal has the lowest cutting force fluctuation and the highest grinding quality. It provides a reference for the choosing of grain shape in rough grinding and ultra-precision grinding. The correctness and reliability of the simulation results were verified by the comparison of the simulation findings with the results obtained from varied-depth scratching experiments and the multi-shape indenter scratch experiments.


K9 glass Grain shape Ductile-brittle transition SPH simulation Surface/subsurface damage 


Funding information

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from the National Natural Science foundation of China (General Program, no. 51575083 and no. 51505063), Science Fund for Creative Research Groups (no. 51621064), and the EPSRC (EP/K018345/1) in the UK.


  1. 1.
    Pierrat C, Siegrist T, Demarco J, Harriott L, Vaidya S (1996) Multiple-layer blank structure for phase-shifting mask fabrication [J]. J Vac Sci Technol B 14(1):63–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bifano TG, Dow TA, Scattergood RO (1991) Ductile-regime grinding: a new technology for machining brittle materials [J]. J Eng Ind Trans ASME 113(2):184–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Leng B (2015) Research on grinding surface crack and depth prediction of optical glass[D]. Harbin Institute of Technology (in chinese)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zhang FH, Li C, Meng BB, Zhao H, Liu Z (2016) Investigation of surface deformation characteristic and removal mechanism for K9 glass based on varied cutting-depth nano-scratch[J]. J Mech Eng 52(17):65–71 (in chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhang FH, Li C, Zhao H, Leng B (2016) Prediction model and experimental study of subsurface damage depths in grinding for K9 glasses[J]. China Mech Eng 27(18):2442–2446 (in chinese)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wu YP (2014) Research on subsurface damage analysis and detection technology of optical element after grinding and polishing[D]. Xianmen University, (in chinese)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Guo XG, Wei YJ, Jin ZJ, Guo DM, Wang MS (2013) A numerical model for optical glass cutting based on SPH method[J]. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 68:1277–1283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li C, Li XL, Wu YQ, Zhang FH, Huang H (2019) Deformation mechanism and force modelling of the grinding of YAG single crystals[J]. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li C, Zhang FH, Meng BB, Liu LF, Rao XS (2017) Material removal mechanism and grinding force modelling of ultrasonic vibration assisted grinding for SiC ceramics[J]. Ceram Int, 43(3)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Li C, Zhang FH, Wang X, Rao XS (2018) Repeated nanoscratch and double nanoscratch tests of Lu2O3 transparent ceramics: material removal and deformation mechanism, and theoretical model of penetration depth[J]. J Eur Ceram Soc, 38(2)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Heinzel C, Rickens K (2009) Engineered wheels for grinding of optical glass[J]. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 58(1):315–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sun X, Stephenson DJ, Ohnishi O, Baldwin A (2006) An investigation into parallel and cross grinding of BK7 glass[J]. Precis Eng 30(2):145–153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zhang B (2018) Research on the influence law of high speed grinding process parameter on K9 surface roughness[J]. Modul Mach Tool Autom Manuf Techn 02:124–127Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li J, Wang HM, Wang WZ, Huang JD, Zhu YW (2015) Model of surface roughness in fixed abrasive lapping of K9 glass[J]. J Mech Eng 51(21):199–205 (in chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Yan L, Jiang F, Rong YM (2012) Grinding mechanism based on single grain cutting simulation [J]. J Mech Eng 48(11):173–182 (in chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Barge M, Rech J, Hamdi H, Bergheau JM (2008) Experimental study of abrasive process[J]. Wear 264:382–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Matsuo T, Toyoura S, Oshima E, Ohbuchi Y (1981) Effect of grain shape on cutting force in superabrasive single-grit tests[J]. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 38(1):323–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Morten FV, Torben GF (2008) Simulation of metal cutting using smooth particle hydrodynamics. 7th LS-DYNA Anwenderforum, BambergGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Guo XG, Liu ZY, Zheng GL, Guo DM (2016) Micro-mechanical behavior and machining property for tripler plane of KDP crystal[J]. Opt Precis Eng 24(02):398–405 (in chinese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mir A, Luo XC, Sun JN (2016) The investigation of influence of tool wear on ductile to brittle transition in single point diamond turning of silicon[J]. Wear 364-365:233–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lucy LB (1977) A numerical approach to the testing of fusion processes[J]. Astrophys J 82:1013–1024Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang SC (1996) Smoothed particle hydrodynamics method[J]. Chin J Comput Phys 04:2–14 (in chinese)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang CY (2007) “Handbook of glass materials” [M]. Beijing: Chemical Industrial Press, pp.535-555, (in chinese)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cronin D S, Bui K, Kaufmann C, et al. (2004) Implementation and validation of the johnson-holmquist ceramic material model in LS-Dyna [C]. 4th International LS-DYNA Users Conference, D-I: 47-59Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Johnson GR, Holmquist TJ (1994) An improved computational constitutive model for brittle materials[C]. High-Pressure Science and Technology, Colorado Springs, USA, 981–4.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wu QP, Wang Y, Zhao H, Zheng WJ, Deng ZH (2018) Precision grinding of ultra-fine carbide based on electrolytic in-process dressing of a mutil-layer brazed diamond wheel[J]. J Mech Eng 54(21):212–220 (in chinese)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Griffith AA (1924) Theory of rupture. In Proc. First Internat.Congr. Appl. Mech. (ed C.B., Bjezeno&J.M. Burgers), J. Waltman Jr, Delft, p.55Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Zhong YS (2018) Analysis and experimental study on influencing factors of scratch behavior[D]. Jilin University, (in chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xiaoguang Guo
    • 1
  • Ruifeng Zhai
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yutong Shi
    • 1
  • Renke Kang
    • 1
  • Zhuji Jin
    • 1
  • Dongming Guo
    • 1
  1. 1.Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-Traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of EducationDalian University of TechnologyDalianChina

Personalised recommendations