Electrochemical discharge machining: fumes generations, properties and biological effects

  • Manpreet SinghEmail author
  • Sarbjit Singh


Electrochemical discharge machining (ECDM) is a non-conventional machining process which is highly susceptible for machining of various materials irrespective of their properties. This process is successfully attempted for machining of micro-holes and micro-channels on ceramics, composites and super-alloys for micro electromechanical system, lab-on-chip devices and aerospace applications. However, since the development of ECDM process, the environmental aspects and its effect on human health are least reported. Therefore, the analysis and characterization of fumes particles, gases and compounds generated in breathing zone of ECDM process is the key route for its conversion to sustainable and green manufacturing process. This paper describes the fumes mass concentration, morphology of fume particles, average size and chemical composition in ECDM process with alkaline electrolytes such as KOH. The morphological analysis of fumes particles in ECDM process exhibits different shapes such as spherical, irregular, rectangular, agglomerations and flower shell structure. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) is carried out to predict chemical composition of fumes particles generated in ECDM process. The EDS analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of fumes particles reveal the presence of different toxic elements and compounds such as Cr, Mg, Ti and Fe, which have carcinogen effects on environment as well as on human health.


Electrochemical discharge machining Electrolyte Fumes mass concentration Morphology Chemical composition Biological effects 


Funding information

This study was financially supported by the Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India, under grant EMR/2016/005352.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringPunjab Engineering CollegeChandigarhIndia

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