Analysing significant process parameters for friction stir welding of polymer composite

  • Muhammad Yasir Ishraq
  • Shahid Maqsood
  • Khawar Naeem
  • Muhammad Abid
  • Muhammad OmairEmail author


This research deals with the performance of friction stir welding (FSW) process and its application on composite material with the analysis of weld strength. The objective is to analyse the weld strength by optimising process parameters at different levels. The FSW is carried out at industrial grades by using locally available customised polycarbonate (PC) whereas the fibreglass (FG) is used as composite material in this research. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher’s least significant difference test are employed. The reason is to compare the mean shear strength of welds produced by FSW among different composition materials having composite material by weight, i.e. 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20%, with machine parameters, i.e. feed rate, rotation speed, and tool profile. The experiments suggested that PC with 15% FG produce highest mean strength under same process parameters and also exhibit the highest mean shear strength to base material. The materials have shown significant difference in their mean shear strength after analysis through Fisher’s LSD method. In the 2nd phase, Taguchi and ANOVA methods were applied to evaluate the effect of tool rotation, feed, and tool design on FSW using PC with 15% FG by weight. The Taguchi analysis using quality characteristic “Larger the Better” suggests that the rotation of tool is the most significant factor that affects the weld strength. The material produces better strength at high rotation speed of 1250 rpm and produces better strength at feed rate of 12 mm/s and tool type conical threaded pin design.


Welding process Friction stir welding Polymer composite Taguchi Analysis Analysis of variance (ANOVA). 



  1. 1.
    Thomas W, Nicholas E (1997) Friction stir welding for the transportation industries. Mater Des 18:269–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thomas WM, Nicholas ED, Needham JC, Murch MG, Templesmith P, Dawes CJ. Friction Stir Butt Welding. Int. Patent App PCT/GB92/02203 and GB Patent App 9125978.8, December 1991. US patent no. 5,460,317, October 1995Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barcellona A, Buffa G, Fratini L, Palmeri D (2006) On microstructural phenomena occurring in friction stir welding of aluminium alloys. J Mater Process Technol 177:340–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ahmadi H, Arab NM, Ghasemi FA (2014) Optimization of process parameters for friction stir lap welding of carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic composites by Taguchi method. J Mech Sci Technol 28:279–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bagheri A, Azdast T, Doniavi A (2013) An experimental study on mechanical properties of friction stir welded ABS sheets. Mater Des 43:402–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Panaskar N, Terkar R (2016) Study of joining different types of polymers by friction stir welding. In CAD/CAM, robotics and factories of the future, Springer: New Dehli; pp. 731–739Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gibson B, Lammlein D, Prater T, Longhurst W, Cox C, Ballun M, Dharmaraj K, Cook G, Strauss A (2014) Friction stir welding: process, automation, and control. J Manuf Process 16:56–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sahu PK, Pal S (2015) Multi-response optimization of process parameters in friction stir welded AM20 magnesium alloy by Taguchi grey relational analysis. J Magnesium Alloys 3:36–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Unnikrishnan MA, Edwin Raja DJ (2017) A survey on friction stir welding of dissimilar magnesium alloys. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 247:012009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ahmadi H, Arab NBM, & Ghasemi FA (2012) Application of Taguchi method to optimize friction stir welding parameters for polypropylene composite lap joints. Arch Sci, 65(7)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu G, Murr L, Niou C, McClure J, Vega F (1997) Microstructural aspects of the friction-stir welding of 6061-T6 aluminum. Scr Mater 37:355–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Buffa G, Campanile G, Fratini L, Prisco A (2009) Friction stir welding of lap joints: influence of process parameters on the metallurgical and mechanical properties. Mater Sci Eng A 519:19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vagh A, Pandya S (2012) Influence of process parameters on the mechanical properties of friction stir welded AA 2014-T6 Alloy using Taguchi orthogonal array. Int J Eng Sci Emerging Technol 2:51–58Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Koilraj M, Sundareswaran V, Vijayan S, Rao SK (2012) Friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys AA2219 to AA5083–optimization of process parameters using Taguchi technique. Mater Des 42:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gao J, Li C, Shilpakar U, Shen Y (2016) Microstructure and tensile properties of dissimilar submerged friction stir welds between HDPE and ABS sheets. The international journal of advanced manufacturing technology 1;87(1-4):919–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Akinlabi ET, Akinlabi SA (2012) Friction stir welding process: a green technology. World Acad Sci Eng Technol 71:1536–1538Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Boulahem K, Salem SB, Bessrour J (2015) Surface roughness model and parametric welding optimization in friction stir welded AA2017 using taguchi method and response surface methodology. Design and Modeling of Mechanical Systems-II. Springer, Cham, pp 83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bozkurt Y (2012) The optimization of friction stir welding process parameters to achieve maximum tensile strength in polyethylene sheets. Mater Des 35:440–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gao J, Shen Y, Xu H (2016) Investigations for the mechanical, macro-, and microstructural analyses of dissimilar submerged friction stir welding of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polycarbonate sheets. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 230(7):1213–1220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Anil Kumar KS, Karur AS, Chipli S, Singh A (2015) Optimization of FSW parameters to improve the mechanical properties of AA2024-T351 similar joints using Taguchi method. J Mech Eng Auto 5:27–32Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Amirizad M, Kokabi A, Gharacheh MA, Sarrafi R, Shalchi B, Azizieh M (2006) Evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties in friction stir welded A356+ 15% SiC p cast composite. Mater Lett 60:565–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Panneerselvam K, Lenin K (2014) Joining of Nylon 6 plate by friction stir welding process using threaded pin profile. Mater Des 53:302–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Watanabe T, Kagiya K, Yanagisawa A, Tanabe H (2006) Solid state welding of steel and magnesium alloy using a rotating pin. Quarterly Journal of The Japan Welding Society 24(1):108–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kumar K, Kailas SV, Srivatsan TS (2008) Influence of tool geometry in friction stir welding. Mater Manuf Process 23:188–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Scialpi A, De Filippis L, Cavaliere P (2007) Influence of shoulder geometry on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 6082 aluminium alloy. Mater Des 28:1124–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhao Y-H, Lin S-B, Wu L, Qu F-X (2005) The influence of pin geometry on bonding and mechanical properties in friction stir weld 2014 Al alloy. Mater Lett 59:2948–2952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Eslami S, Tavares PJ, Moreira PMGP (2017) Friction stir welding tooling for polymers: review and prospects. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89(5–8):1677–1690CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mostafapour A, Azarsa E (2012) A study on the role of processing parameters in joining polyethylene sheets via heat assisted friction stir welding: Investigating microstructure, tensile and flexural properties. Int J Phys Sci 7:647–654Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mendes N, Loureiro A, Martins C, Neto P, Pires J (2014) Morphology and strength of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene welds performed by robotic friction stir welding. Mater Des 64:81–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jo B-W, Park S-K, Kim D-K (2008) Mechanical properties of nano-MMT reinforced polymer composite and polymer concrete. Constr Build Mater 22:14–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Taguchijeve U, FSW V-TP (2010) Application of grey relation analysis (GRA) and Taguchi method for the parametric optimization of friction stir welding (FSW) process. Mater Tehnol 44:205Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Vidal C, Infante V (2013) Optimization of FS welding parameters for improving mechanical behavior of AA2024-T351 joints based on Taguchi method. J Mater Eng Perform 22:2261–2270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Song M, Kovacevic R (2003) Numerical and experimental study of the heat transfer process in friction stir welding. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 217:73–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Krishnaiah K, Shahabudeen P (2012) Applied design of experi- ments and Taguchi methods; PHI learning Pvt. ltd., eastern economy edition, New Delhi-110001Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Alo F, Atanda P, Daniyan A, Abodunrin O, Oluwasegun K (2017) An Assessment of imported and local constructional steel in Nigeria: analysis by one-way ANOVA. Int J Mater Eng 7:45–51Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of Engineering and TechnologyPeshawarPakistan
  2. 2.Interdisciplinary Research CentreCOMSATS University IslamabadWah CanttPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringCOMSATS University IslamabadWah CanttPakistan
  4. 4.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of Engineering and TechnologyPeshawarPakistan

Personalised recommendations