Advertisement

Influence of grinding parameters on phase transformation, surface roughness, and grinding cost of bioceramic partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) using diamond grinding wheel

  • Javad Khodaii
  • Farshad Barazandeh
  • Mehdi RezaeiEmail author
  • Hamed Adibi
  • Ahmed A. D. Sarhan
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 17 Downloads

Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of various grinding parameters on the phase transformation, surface roughness, G-ratio, grinding cost, and specific grinding energy of partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) using different diamond grinding wheels. The use of PSZ ceramic in dental applications has significantly increased in recent years due to excellent mechanical and biological properties. Considering the extreme hardness and brittleness of PSZ besides achieving dimensional and geometrical accuracies, grinding becomes an essential process. PSZ blocks are ground using four different diamond grinding wheels and grinding forces are measured during the grinding process. Next, PSZ phase transformation is analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface roughness; furthermore, wheel wear and grinding cost analysis are performed. All samples subjected to grinding reveal an increase in monoclinic phase content. From the surface integrity point of view, processing the images of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) from the specimens subjected to the grinding with a metal bond diamond grinding wheel shows 12% higher surface integrity. Additionally, it is shown that grinding in an optimum condition could enhance the surface roughness more than 60%. To find this optimum condition as well as to establish a mathematical relationship between inputs and outputs, response surface method (RSM) is employed. The obtained R-square value for the mathematical model is more than 0.90, which confirms the precision of the model.

Keywords

Grinding Ceramic Partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) XRD SEM RSM 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This project was supported by the Centre of Advanced Manufacturing and Material Processing of university of Malaya.

References

  1. 1.
    Sarici DE, Ozdemir E (2018) Utilization of granite waste as alternative abrasive material in marble grinding processes. J Cleaner Prod 201:516-525Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhu Y et al (2019) Micro-fracture mechanism of polycrystalline CBN grain during single grain scratching tests based on fractal 521 dimension analysis. Precis EngGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Liu Y, Deng J, Wu F, Duan R, Zhang X, Hou Y (2017) Wear resistance of carbide tools with textured flank-face in dry cutting of green alumina ceramics. Wear 372:91–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Xu S et al (2017) An experimental investigation of grinding force and energy in laser thermal shock-assisted grinding of zirconia ceramics. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91(9-12):3299–3306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Xu S, Yao Z, Zhang M (2016) Material removal behavior in scratching of zirconia ceramic surface treated with laser thermal shock. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 85(9-12):2693–2701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Xiao X, Zheng K, Liao W (2014) Theoretical model for cutting force in rotary ultrasonic milling of dental zirconia ceramics. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 75(9-12):1263–1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pachaury Y, Tandon P (2017) An overview of electric discharge machining of ceramics and ceramic based composites. J Manuf Process 25:369–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang J et al (2018) Wear evolution and stress distribution of single CBN superabrasive grain in high-speed grinding. Precis Eng 54:70–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Solhtalab A et al. (2019) Cup wheel grinding-induced subsurface damage in optical glass BK7: an experimental, theoretical and numerical investigation. Precis Eng 57:162-75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yang M, et al. (2019) “Effect of friction coefficient on chip thickness models in ductile-regime grinding of zirconia ceramics.” Int J Adv Manuf Technol 102: 2617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhao YJ et al (2017) Machined brittle material surface in grinding: modeling, experimental validation, and image-processing-based surface analysis. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 93(5-8):2875–2894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Belenky A, Rittel D (2011) A simple methodology to measure the dynamic flexural strength of brittle materials. Exp Mech 51(8):1325–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Flinn BD, Raigrodski AJ, Mancl LA, Toivola R, Kuykendall T (2017) Influence of aging on flexural strength of translucent zirconia for monolithic restorations. J Prosthet Dent 117(2):303–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jia D et al (2019) Experimental evaluation of surface topographies of NMQL grinding ZrO 2 ceramics combining multiangle ultrasonic vibration. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 100(1-4):457–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gautam C et al (2016) Zirconia based dental ceramics: structure, mechanical properties, biocompatibility and applications. Dalton Trans 45(48):19194–19215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Shahramian K, Leminen H, Meretoja V, Linderbäck P, Kangasniemi I, Lassila L, Abdulmajeed A, Närhi T (2017) Sol–gel derived bioactive coating on zirconia: effect on flexural strength and cell proliferation. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 105(8):2401–2407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ozer F, Naden A, Turp V, Mante F, Sen D, Blatz MB (2018) Effect of thickness and surface modifications on flexural strength of monolithic zirconia. J Prosthet Dent 119(6):987–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sato H, Yamada K, Pezzotti G, Nawa M, Ban S (2008) Mechanical properties of dental zirconia ceramics changed with sandblasting and heat treatment. Dent Mater J 27(3):408–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zucuni CP et al (2019) Influence of finishing/polishing on the fatigue strength, surface topography, and roughness of an yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals subjected to grinding. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 93:222–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Platt P, Frankel P, Gass M, Howells R, Preuss M (2014) Finite element analysis of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation during oxidation of zirconium alloys. J Nucl Mater 454(1-3):290–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Dambatta YS et al (2017) Ultrasonic assisted grinding of advanced materials for biomedical and aerospace applications—a review. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 92(9-12):3825–3858CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Garvie RC, Hannink RH, Pascoe RT (1975) Ceramic steel? Nature 258(5537):703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen J, Shen J, Huang H, Xu X (2010) Grinding characteristics in high speed grinding of engineering ceramics with brazed diamond wheels. J Mater Process Technol 210(6-7):899–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Suya Prem Anand P, Arunachalam N,Vijayaraghavan L (2015) Grinding behavior of yttrium partially stabilized zirconia using diamond grinding wheel. Adv Mater Res 806 1136:15-20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Pereira GKR, Silvestri T, Camargo R, Rippe MP, Amaral M, Kleverlaan CJ, Valandro LF (2016) Mechanical behavior of a Y-TZP ceramic for monolithic restorations: effect of grinding and low-temperature aging. Mater Sci Eng C 63:70–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Aboushelib MN, Salem NA, Taleb ALA, El Moniem NMA (2013) Influence of surface nano-roughness on osseointegration of zirconia implants in rabbit femur heads using selective infiltration etching technique. J Oral Implantol 39(5):583–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Strickstrock M, Rothe H, Grohmann S, Hildebrand G, Zylla IM, Liefeith K (2017) Influence of surface roughness of dental zirconia implants on their mechanical stability, cell behavior and osseointegration. BioNanoMaterials 18(1-2):1-10Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shibata Y, Tanimoto Y (2015) A review of improved fixation methods for dental implants. Part I: surface optimization for rapid osseointegration. J Prosthodontic Res 59(1):20–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee D-H et al (2019) Effects of different surface finishing protocols for zirconia on surface roughness and bacterial biofilm formation. J Adv Prosthodont 11.1:41–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Li S, Wang Z, Wu Y (2008) Relationship between subsurface damage and surface roughness of optical materials in grinding and lapping processes. J Mater Process Technol 205(1-3):34–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Esmaeilzare A, Rahimi A, Rezaei SM (2014) Investigation of subsurface damages and surface roughness in grinding process of Zerodur® glass–ceramic. Appl Surf Sci 313:67–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shao Y, Li B, Liang SY (2015) Predictive modeling of surface roughness in grinding of ceramics. Mach Sci Technol 19(2):325–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Huang H, Liu YC (2003) Experimental investigations of machining characteristics and removal mechanisms of advanced ceramics in high speed deep grinding. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 43(8):811–823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhao P-y et al (2018) Surface roughness prediction model in ultrasonic vibration assisted grinding of BK7 optical glass. J Cent South Univ 25(2):277–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jia D, Li C, Zhang Y, Yang M, Wang Y, Guo S, Cao H (2017) Specific energy and surface roughness of minimum quantity lubrication grinding Ni-based alloy with mixed vegetable oil-based nanofluids. Precis Eng 50:248–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Li B et al (2019) Grindability of powder metallurgy nickel-base superalloy FGH96 and sensibility analysis of machined surface roughness. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 101(9-12):2259–2273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Whitehouse DJ (2010) Handbook of surface and nanometrology. CRC pressGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Batako AD, Bechcinski G, Ewad H, Tsiakoumis V, Pawlowski W, McMillan AJ (2018) A model and application of vibratory surface grinding. J Manuf Sci Eng 140(10):101011-101019Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kopac J, Krajnik P (2006) High-performance grinding—a review. J Mater Process Technol 175(1-3):278–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zhong ZW, Venkatesh VC (2009) Recent developments in grinding of advanced materials. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 41:468-480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zahedi A, Tawakoli T, Akbari J (2015) Energy aspects and workpiece surface characteristics in ultrasonic-assisted cylindrical grinding of alumina–zirconia ceramics. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 90:16–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gopal AV, Venkateswara Rao P (2004) A new chip-thickness model for performance assessment of silicon carbide grinding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 24(11-12):816–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Gu Y et al (2019) Towards the understanding of creep-feed deep grinding of DD6 nickel-based single-crystal superalloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 100(1-4):445–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dai J et al (2015) Understanding the effects of grinding speed and undeformed chip thickness on the chip formation in high-speed grinding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 81(5-8):995–1005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zhang LC et al (1995) A study of creep-feed grinding of metallic and ceramic materials. J Mater Process Technol 48(1-4):267–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chen JB et al (2016) Theoretical study on brittle–ductile transition behavior in elliptical ultrasonic assisted grinding of hard brittle materials. Precis Eng 46:104–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ramesh K et al (2001) Experimental evaluation of super high-speed grinding of advanced ceramics. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 17(2):87–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Chusovitina TV, Toropov YS, Tretnikova MG (1991) Properties of ceramics based on zirconia partly stabilized with yttrium concentrate. Refractories 32(5-6):277–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Javad Khodaii
    • 1
  • Farshad Barazandeh
    • 1
  • Mehdi Rezaei
    • 1
    Email author
  • Hamed Adibi
    • 1
  • Ahmed A. D. Sarhan
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringAmirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic)TehranIran
  2. 2.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentUniversity of Malaya (UM)Kuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations