Advertisement

Influence of graphene-enriched nanofluids and textured tool on machining behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy

  • Rupinder Singh
  • J. S. Dureja
  • Manu Dogra
  • Munish Kumar GuptaEmail author
  • Mozammel Mia
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 80 Downloads

Abstract

In this study, turning of titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy under four different environments as dry, vegetable oil under minimum quantity lubrication (MQL), texture on the rake face filled with graphene particles, and graphene-mixed vegetable oil under nanoparticle-based minimum quantity lubrication (NMQL) with textured carbide tools is investigated. Results shows that maximum tool life, lower cutting forces, and minimum cutting temperature generated are with NMQL followed by MQL, texture filled with graphene, and dry turning. The tool life under NMQL is improved by 178 to 190%, main cutting force minimized by 36 to 40%, and cutting temperature reduced by 31 to 42% as compared with dry condition at various cutting speeds. The best turning performance is achieved under NMQL which is mainly due to higher thermal conductivity of MQL fluid mixture and shearing action imparted by graphene on different contact surfaces of tool. Further, the phenomena of improved thermal conductivity and shearing action imparted by graphene are explained by using transient hot-wire/SEM/Raman spectroscopy in this study. Finally, it is concluded that graphene has potential to act as lubricant/coolant in turning processes.

Keywords

Graphene MQL Textured tools Tool wear Cutting forces Cutting temperature 

Nomenclature

MQL

Minimum quantity lubrication

NMQL

Nanoparticle-based minimum quantity lubrication

Fx

Axial thrust force (N)

Fy

Radial thrust force (N)

Fz

Main cutting force (N)

VBmax

Maximum flank wear (μm)

Vc

Cutting speed (m/min)

f

Feed (mm/rev)

ap

Depth of cut (mm)

re

Nose radius (mm)

HRC

Rockwell hardness on C scale

SEM

Scanning electron microscope

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

ISO

International Organization for Standardization

L/D

Length to diameter ratio

T1

Dry textured tool

T2

Textured tool with canola oil as MQL based

T3

Textured tool filled with graphene

T4

Textured tool with graphene mixed in canola oil as NMQL fluid

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Mia M, Dhar NR (2018) Effects of duplex jets high-pressure coolant on machining temperature and machinability of Ti-6Al-4V superalloy. J Mater Process Technol 252:688–696.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2017.10.040 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Maruda RW, Krolczyk GM, Wojciechowski S, Zak K, Habrat W, Nieslony P (2018) Effects of extreme pressure and anti-wear additives on surface topography and tool wear during MQCL turning of AISI 1045 steel. 32:1585–1591.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-018-0313-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Krolczyk GM, Maruda RW, Krolczyk JB, Wojciechowski S, Mia M, Nieslony P, Budzik G (2019) Ecological trends in machining as a key factor in sustainable production–A review. JClean Prod 218:601–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Gupta MK, Sood P (2017) Machining comparison of aerospace materials considering minimum quantity cutting fluid: a clean and green approach. Proc Inst Mech Eng C J Mech Eng Sci 231:1445–1464.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0954406216684158 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dureja JS, Singh R, Singh T, Singh P, Dogra M, Bhatti MS (2015) Performance evaluation of coated carbide tool in machining of stainless steel (AISI 202) under minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). Int J Precis Eng Manuf Technol 2:123–129.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40684-015-0016-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sharma N, Gupta K (2019) Influence of coated and uncoated carbide tools on tool wear and surface quality during dry machining of stainless steel 304. Mater Res Express 6:086585.  https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/ab1e59 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sen B, Hussain SAI, Mia M, Mandal UK, Mondal SP (2019) Selection of an ideal MQL-assisted milling condition: an NSGA-II-coupled TOPSIS approach for improving machinability of inconel 690. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 103:1811–1829.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-019-03620-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Singh T, Singh P, Dureja JS, Dogra M, Singh H, Bhatti MS (2016) A review of near dry machining/minimum quantity lubrication machining of difficult to machine alloys. Int J Mach Mach Mater 18:213–251.  https://doi.org/10.1504/IJMMM.2016.076276 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dogra M, Sharma VS, Dureja JS, Gill SS (2018) Environment-friendly technological advancements to enhance the sustainability in surface grinding- a review. J Clean Prod 197:218–231.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.05.280 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Oliveira D, Carvalho A, Rosa L, Jackson MJ, Machado ÁR (2019) Performance evaluation of vegetable-based cutting fluids in turning of AISI 1050 steel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 103:1603–1619.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-019-03636-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dong L, Li C, Bai X, Zhai M, Qi Q, Yin Q, Lv X, Li L (2019) Analysis of the cooling performance of Ti – 6Al – 4V in minimum quantity lubricant milling with different nanoparticles. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 103:2197–2206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pereira O, Alfonso JEM, Rodriguez A, Calleja A, Valdivielso AF, López de Lacalle LN (2017) Sustainability analysis of lubricant oils for minimum quantity lubrication based on their tribo-rheological performance. J Clean Prod 164:1419–1429.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.07.078 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rapeti P, Pasam VK, Gurram KMR, Revuru RS (2018) Performance evaluation of vegetable oil based nano cutting fluids in machining using grey relational analysis-a step towards sustainable manufacturing. J Clean Prod 172:2862–2875.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.11.127 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bai X, Li C, Dong L, Yin Q (2019) Experimental evaluation of the lubrication performances of different nanofluids for minimum quantity lubrication ( MQL ) in milling Ti-6Al-4V. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 101:2621–2632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Su Y, Gong L, Li B, Liu Z, Chen D (2016) Performance evaluation of nanofluid MQL with vegetable-based oil and ester oil as base fluids in turning. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 83:2083–2089.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-7730-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Yi S, Li N, Solanki S, Mo J, Ding S (2019) Effects of graphene oxide nano fluids on cutting temperature and force in machining Ti-6Al-4V. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 103:1481–1495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Maruda RW, Krolczyk GM, Michalski M, Nieslony P, Wojciechowski S (2017) Structural and microhardness changes after turning of the AISI 1045 steel for minimum quantity cooling lubrication. J Mater Eng Perform 26:431–438.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-016-2450-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Maruda RW, Feldshtein E, Legutko S, Krolczyk GM (2016) Analysis of contact phenomena and heat exchange in the cutting zone under minimum quantity cooling lubrication conditions. Arab J Sci Eng 41:661–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ranjan P, Hiremath SS (2019) Role of textured tool in improving machining performance: a review. J Manuf Process 43:47–73.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2019.04.011 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ge D, Deng J, Duan R, Liu Y, Li X, Yue H (2019) Effect of micro-textures on cutting fluid lubrication of cemented carbide tools. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 103:3887–3899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sharma V, Pandey PM (2017) Geometrical design optimization of hybrid textured self-lubricating cutting inserts for turning 4340 hardened steel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89:1575–1589.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-016-9163-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Orra K, Choudhury SK (2018) Tribological aspects of various geometrically shaped micro-textures on cutting insert to improve tool life in hard turning process. J Manuf Process 31:502–513.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2017.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Chen Y, Wang J, Chen M (2019) Enhancing the machining performance by cutting tool surface modifications: a focused review. Mach Sci Technol 23:477–509.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10910344.2019.1575412 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Arulkirubakaran D, Senthilkumar V, Kumawat V (2016) Effect of micro-textured tools on machining of Ti-6Al-4V alloy: an experimental and numerical approach. Int J Refract Met Hard Mater 54:165–177.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2015.07.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Li N, Chen Y, Kong D, Tan S (2017) Experimental investigation with respect to the performance of deep submillimeter-scaled textured tools in dry turning titanium alloy Ti-6al-4V. Applied Sur Sci. 403:187–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hao X, Li H, Yang Y, Xiao S, Song X, Li L (2019) Experiment on cutting performance of textured cemented carbide tools with various wettability levels. Int J Adv Manuf Techno 103:757–768CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kiyota H, Itoigawa F, Nakamura T (2014) Experimental research of micro-textured tool for reduction in cutting force. Key Eng Mater 611-612:1258–1263.  https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.611-612.1258 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Obikawa T, Kamio A, Takaoka H, Osada A (2011) Micro-texture at the coated tool face for high performance cutting. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 51:966–972.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2011.08.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yu H, Deng H, Huang W, Wang X (2011) The effect of dimple shapes on friction of parallel surfaces. Proc Inst Mech Eng J J Eng Tribol 225:693–703.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1350650111406045 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Berman D, Erdemir A, Sumant AV (2014) Graphene: a new emerging lubricant. Mater Today 17:31–42.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mattod.2013.12.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Li P, Liu H, Chen H, Cheng X (2018) The influence of APTES interlayer on the assembly and tribological properties of graphene coatings on titanium substrate. Mater Res Express 6:16424.  https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/aae871 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Xue B, Liu X, Shi X, Huang Y, Lu G, Wu C (2018) Effect of graphene nanoplatelets on tribological properties of titanium alloy matrix composites at varying sliding velocities. Mater Res Express 5:66507.  https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/aac703 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Balandin AA, Ghosh S, Bao W, Calizo I, Teweldebrhan D, Miao F, Lao CN (2008) Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene. Nano Lett 8:902–907.  https://doi.org/10.1021/nl0731872 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lee GH, Cooper RC, An SJ, Lee S, Zhande A, Petrone N, Hammerberg AG, Lee C, Crawford B, Oliver W, Kysar JW, Hone J (2013) High-strength chemical-vapor deposited graphene and grain boundaries. Science 340:1073–1076.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1235126 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ueda T, Hosokawa A, Yamada K (2005) Effect of oil mist on tool temperature in cutting. J Manuf Sci Eng 128:130–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Dogra M, Sharma VS, Sachdeva A, Suri NM, Dureja JS (2011) Performance evaluation of CBN, coated carbide, cryogenically treated uncoated/coated carbide inserts in finish-turning of hardened steel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 57:541–553.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-011-3320-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chinchanikar S, Choudhury SK (2014) Hard turning using HiPIMS-coated carbide tools: wear behavior under dry and mini- mum quantity lubrication (MQL). J Int Meas Confed 55:536–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chu B, Singh E, Koratkar N, Samuel J (2013) Graphene-enhanced environmentally-benign cutting fluids for high-performance micro-machining applications. J Nanosci Nanotechnol 13:5500–5504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Singh RK, Sharma AK, Dixit AR, Tiwari AK, Pramanik A, Mandal A (2017) Performance evaluation of alumina-graphene hybrid nano-cutting fluid in hard turning. J Clean Prod 162:830–845CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sharma AK, Tiwari AK, Dixit AR, Singh RK, Singh M (2018) Novel uses of alumina/graphene hybrid nanoparticle additives for improved tribological properties of lubricant in turning operation. Tribol Int 119:99–111.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.triboint.2017.10.036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jianxin D, Wenlong S, Hui Z (2009) Design, fabrication and properties of a self-lubricated tool in dry cutting. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49:66–72.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmachtools.2008.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wu L, Gu L, Xie Z, Zhang C, Song B (2017) Improved tribological properties of Si3N4/GCr15 sliding pairs with few layer graphene as oil additives. Ceram Int 43:14218–14224.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ceramint.2017.07.168 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kaniyoor A, Ramaprabhu S (2016) A Raman spectroscopic investigation of graphite oxide derived graphene A Raman spectroscopic investigation of graphite oxide derived graphene. AIP Adv 2:032183.  https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4756995 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Stoeterau RL, Janssen A, Mallmann G (2017) Analysis of dimple textured surfaces on cutting tools. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 39:3989–3996.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40430-016-0692-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ze W, Jianxin D, Yang C, Youqiang X, Jun Z (2012) Performance of the self-lubricating textured tools in dry cutting of Ti-6Al-4 V. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 62:943–951.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-011-3853-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, University School of Engineering & TechnologyRayat Bahra UniversityMohaliIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringPunjabi UniversityPatialaIndia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringPanjab University SSG Regional CentreHoshiarpurIndia
  4. 4.Key Laboratory of High Efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture, Ministry of Education, School of Mechanical EngineeringShandong UniversityJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.Department of Mechanical and Production EngineeringAhsanullah University of Science and TechnologyDhakaBangladesh

Personalised recommendations