Laser energy density dependence of performance in additive/subtractive hybrid manufacturing of 316L stainless steel

  • Yadong GongEmail author
  • Yuying Yang
  • Shuoshuo Qu
  • Pengfei Li
  • Chunyou Liang
  • Huan Zhang


An enormous amount of research effort goes into the manufacturing process for additive manufacturing (AM) or subtractive manufacturing (SM) process for property microstructure. Moreover, additive/subtractive hybrid manufacturing (ASHM), which combines additive and subtractive processes in a single machine, has provided an important opportunity to increase the high percentage of stock utilization and produce complex functional components. However, the system comprehensive investigation and the study of ASHM-manufactured parts by various process parameters have rarely been reported. The present paper depicted the effect of laser energy density (ψ) on the phase change, density, microstructure, Vickers hardness, and tensile testing within the ASHM specimens. It was observed that the highest Vickers microhardness, the largest tensile strength, and the attendant ductility were gained at ψ =222 J/mm3, the most excellent value, which was put down to the high density and relatively fine grains. The results of this study have a better knowledge of the ASHM method to produce a high surface state and mechanical behavior 316L SS component by governing laser energy density (ψ).


Additive/subtractive hybrid manufacturing Laser energy density Densification Microstructure Tensile properties Vickers microhardness 


Funding information

The author wishes to thank the financial support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51775100) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. N180306001).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yadong Gong
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yuying Yang
    • 1
  • Shuoshuo Qu
    • 1
  • Pengfei Li
    • 1
  • Chunyou Liang
    • 1
  • Huan Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Mechanical Engineering and AutomationNortheastern UniversityShenyangChina

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