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Multi-variable statistical models for predicting bead geometry in gas metal arc welding

  • Rahul Ram ChandrasekaranEmail author
  • Michael J. Benoit
  • Jeff M. Barrett
  • Adrian P. Gerlich
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 67 Downloads

Abstract

Statistical models were developed to study the effect of gas metal arc welding process parameters (i.e., wire feed speed, voltage, travel speed, and shielding gas chemistry) on the resultant weld bead width, penetration, and reinforcement height, using a factorial design of experiment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the weld width depended on voltage, travel speed, gas type, and the interactions between these factors. The weld penetration depended only on wire feed speed and gas type, as well as the two-way interactions of wire feed speed with travel speed and gas type. Reinforcement height depended on travel speed, wire feed speed, and their two-way interactions with gas type. Residual analysis revealed that all assumptions inherent in the regression analysis were satisfied over the range of welding parameters considered in this study. The predictive power of the statistical models was validated using intermediate process parameter values in the experimental design, and it was found that predicted values were mainly in agreement with the measured values for a 95% prediction interval.

Keywords

Gas metal arc welding (GMAW) Weld bead geometry Design of experiment (DOE) Analysis of variance (ANOVA) Shielding gas 

Abbreviations

W

Weld bead width

P

Weld penetration (depth)

R

Reinforcement height

T

Travel speed

V

Voltage

SW

Wire feed speed

G

Gas type

βg,i

Statistical model coefficients

x

Factor levels

z

Orthogonally coded x value

R2

Regression coefficient (coefficient of determination)

R2adj

Adjusted regression coefficient

R2pred

Predicted regression coefficient

Ar

Argon (shielding) gas

CO2

Carbon dioxide (shielding) gas

GMAW

Gas metal arc welding

ANOVA

Analysis of variance

DOE

Design of experiments

SMAW

Shielded metal arc welding

MCAW

Metal cored arc welding

FCAW

Flux cored arc welding

SAW

Submerged arc welding

GTAW

Gas tungsten arc welding

DCEP

Direct current electrode positive

CV

Constant voltage

QQ

Quartile-quartile

Notes

Funding information

The authors received financial support from the Natural Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), and the Canadian Welding Bureau (CWB) Foundation.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rahul Ram Chandrasekaran
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael J. Benoit
    • 1
  • Jeff M. Barrett
    • 2
  • Adrian P. Gerlich
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics EngineeringUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  2. 2.Department of KinesiologyUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada

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