Advertisement

4D printing: a critical review of current developments, and future prospects

  • Md. Hazrat AliEmail author
  • Anuar Abilgaziyev
  • Desmond Adair
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

Due to the strong demand for low-cost and highly efficient products, various approaches are currently being explored and applied so as to contribute to the development and optimization of 4D printing technology. Significant progress is being made in this area of advanced manufacturing, and this comparative study helps to understand the latest developments in materials, additive techniques, and future prospects for this technology. It should, however, be noted that a large amount of progress still remains to be made. While some of the research has focused on the performance of the materials, the rest has focused on the development of new methods and techniques in additive manufacturing. This review critically evaluates the current 4D printing technologies, including the development and optimization of printing methods as well as to the printed objects. Previous developments in this area and contributions to the modern trend in manufacturing technology are briefly summarized. The review is divided into three sections. Firstly, the existing printing methods along with the frequently used printing materials as well as the processing parameters, and the factors which influence the quality and mechanical performances of the printed objects are discussed. Secondly, the optimization techniques, such as topology, shape, structure, and mechanical property, are described. Thirdly, the latest development and applications of additive manufacturing are depicted, and suggestions concerning the scope of future research are put forward.

Keywords

4D printing Additive manufacturing Optimization Polymer materials 

Abbreviations

3D

Three dimensional

3DP

3D printing

4DP

4D printing

ABS

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene

AM

Additive manufacturing

CFRTC

Continuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites

CLIP

Continuous liquid interface production

DE

Dielectric elastomer

DED

Directed energy deposition

DLF

Directed light fabrication

DMD

Direct metal deposition

EAP

Electroactive polymer

FDM

Fused deposition modeling

LBMD

Laser-based metal deposition

LCE

Liquid crystal elastomer

LENS

Laser engineering net shaping

LFF

Laser freeform fabrication

LOM

Laminated object manufacturing

PCL

Polycaprolactone

PLA

Polylactic acid

PVA

Polyvinyl alcohol

PEEK

Polyether ether ketone

SCE

Shape change effect

SLA

Stereolithography

SLM

Selective laser melting

SLS

Selective laser sintering

SMA

Shape-memory alloy

SME

Shape-memory effect

SMMs

Shape-memory materials

SMP

Shape-memory polymer

SMPC

Shape-memory polymer composite

UV

Ultraviolet

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Wohler T, Gornet T (2014) History of additive manufacturing. Wohlers Report. [Online]. Available: http://www.wohlersassociates.com/history2014.pdf. Accessed 10 Feb 2019.
  2. 2.
    Lee AY, An J, Chua CK (2017) Two-way 4D printing: a review on the reversibility of 3d-printed shape memory materials. Engineering 3(5):663–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Huang W, Ding Z, Wang C, Wei J, Zhao Y, Purnawali H (2010) Shape memory materials. Mater Today 13:54–61Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wu J, Huang LM, Zhao Q, Xie T (2017) 4D printing: history and recent progress. Chin J Polym Sci 36:563–575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Tumbleston JR, Shirvanyants D, Ermoshkin N, Janusziewicz R, Johnson AR, Kelly D, Chen K, Pinschmidt R, Rolland JP, Ermoshkin A, Samulski ET, DeSimone JM (2015) Additive manufacturing. Continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects. Science 347(6228):1349–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gebhardt A, Hotter J-S, Ziebura D (2014) Impact of SLM build parameters on the surface quality. RTE J 11Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Davis FJ, Mitchell GR (2011) Polymeric materials for rapid manufacturing in rapid manufacturing. In: Bártolo PJ (ed.) Stereolithography: Materials, Processes and Applications. Springer, Boston, pp 113–139Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Simmons D BBC News, 6 May 2015. [Online]. Available: https://www.bbc.com/news/technology-32597809. [Accessed 10 February 2019]
  9. 9.
    Davies A Business Insider, 28 February 2014. [Online]. Available: https://www.businessinsider.com/koenigsegg-one1-comes-with-3d-printed-parts-2014-2. [Accessed 10 February 2019].
  10. 10.
    Grush L The Verge, 17 January 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.theverge.com/2019/1/17/18185136/relativity-space-3d-printing-terran-1-rocket-cape-canaveral-florida. [Accessed 11 March 2019].
  11. 11.
    Tibbits S, McKnelly C, Olguin C, Dikovsky D, Hirsch S (2014) 4D printing and universal transformation. Proceedings of the 34th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture, pp. 539–548Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pei E (2014) 4D printing: dawn of an emerging technology cycle. Assem Autom 34(4):310–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Parandoush P, Lin D (2017) A review on additive manufacturing of polymer-fiber composites. Compos Struct 182:36–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Leist SK, Zhou J (2016) Current status of 4D printing technology and the potential of light-reactive smart materials as 4D printable materials. Virtual Phys Prototyping 11(4):249–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mu T, Liu L, Lan X, Liu Y, Leng J (2018) Shape memory polymers for composites. Compos Sci Technol 160:169–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Khoo ZX, Teoh JEM, Liu Y, Chua CK, Yang S, An J, Leong KF, Yeong WY (2015) 3D printing of smart materials: a review on recent progresses in 4D printing. Virtual Phys Prototyping 10(3):103–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Choong YYC, Maleksaeedi S, Eng H, Wei J, Su P-C (2017) 4D printing of high performance shape memory polymer using stereolithography. Mater Des 126:219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pei E, Loh GH (2018) Technological considerations for 4D printing: an overview. Progr Addit Manuf 3(1–2):95–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Naficy S, Gately R, Gorkin R III, Xin H, Spinks GM (2017) 4D printing of reversible shape morphing hydrogel structures, Macromol Mater Eng 302Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Felton S, Tolley M, Demaine E, Rus D, Wood R (2014) A method for building self-folding machines. Science 345(6197):644–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Malukhin K, Ehmann K (2006) Material characterization of NiTi based memory alloys fabricated by the laser direct metal deposition process. J Manuf Sci Eng 128(3):691–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Krishna BV, Bose S, Bandyopadhyay A (2007) Laser processing of net-shape NiTi shape memory alloy. Metall Mater Trans A 38(5):1096–1103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Krishna BV, Bose S, Bandyopadhyay A (2009) Fabrication of porous NiTi shape memory alloy structures using laser engineered net shaping. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 89B(2):481–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Halani PR, Kaya I, Shin YC, Karaca HE (2013) Phase transformation characteristics and mechanical characterization of nitinol synthesized by laser direct deposition. Mater Sci Eng A 559:836–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tian X, Liu T, Yang C, Wang Q, Li D (2016) Interface and performance of 3D printed continuous carbon fiber reinforced PLA composites. Compos Part A 88:198–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tian X, Liu T, Wang Q, Dilmurat A, Li D, Ziegmann G (2017) Recycling and remanufacturing of 3D printed continuous carbon fiber reinforced PLA composites. J Clean Prod 142:1609–1618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wang Q, Tian X, Huang L, Li D, Malakhov AV, Polilov AN (2018) Programmable morphing composites with embedded continuous fibers by 4D printing. Mater Des 155:404–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kang M, Pyo Y, Jang JY, Park Y, Son Y-H, Choi MC, Ha JW, Chang Y-W, Lee CS (2018) Design of a shape memory composite (SMC) using 4D printing technology. Sensors Actuators A(283):187–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bodaghi M, Damanpack A, Liao W (2017) Adaptive metamaterials by functionally graded 4D printing. Mater Des 135:26–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lu L, Fuh J, Wong Y-S (2001) Laser-induced materials and process for rapid prototyping. Springer Science & Business Media, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gibson I, Rosen D, Stucker B (2010) Additive Manufactoring Tecnologies: Rapid Prototyping to Direct Digital Manufacturing. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zhao T, Yu R, Li X, Cheng B, Zhang Y, Yang X, Zhao X, Zhao Y, Huang W (2018) 4D printing of shape memory polyurethane via stereolithography. Eur Polym J 101:120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shahzad K, Deckers J, Zhang Z, Kruth J-P, Vleugels J (2014) Additive manufacturing of zirconia parts by indirect selective laser sintering. J Eur Ceram Soc 34(1):81–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bai J, Goodridge RD, Hague RJM, Song M (2013) Improving the mechanical properties of laser-sintered polyamide 12 through incorporation of carbon nanotubes. Polym Eng Sci 53Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tan X, Tan YJ (2019) 3D printing of metallic cellular scaffolds for bone implants, in 3D and 4D printing in biomedical applications. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Hoboken, pp 297–316Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Khoo Z, Liu Y, An J, Chua C, Shen Y, Kuo C (2018) A review of selective laser melted NiTi shape memory alloy. Materials 11:4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shishkovsky I, Yadroitsev I, Smurov I (2012) Direct selective laser melting of nitinol powder. Phys Procedia 39:447–454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Haberland C, Meier H, Frenzel J (2012) On the properties of Ni-rich NiTi shape memory parts produced by selective laser melting. In Volume 1: Development and characterization of multifunctional materials; modeling, simulation and control of adaptive systems; structural health monitoring, Stone Mountain, Georgia, USAGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dadbakhsh S, Speirs M, Kruth J-P, Schrooten J, Luyten J, Van Humbeeck J (2014) Effect of SLM parameters on transformation temperature of shape memory nickel titanium parts. Adv Eng Mater 16(9):1140–1146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gustmann T, dos Santos JM, Gargarella P, Kuhn U, Van Humbeeck J, Pauly S (2016) Properties of Cu-based shape-memory alloys prepared by selective laser melting. Shape Mem Superelasticity 3(1):24–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Mazzer EM, Kiminami CS, Gargarella P, Cava RD, Basilio LA, Bolfarini C, Botta WJ, Eckert J, Gutsmann T, Pauly S (2014) Atomization and selective laser melting of a Cu-Al-Ni-Mn shape memory alloy. Mater Sci Forum 802:343–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Gargarella P, Kiminami CS, Mazzer EM, Cava RD, Basilio LA, Bolfarini C, Botta WJ, Eskerf J, Gustmann T, Pauly S (2015) Phase formation, thermal stability and mechanical properties of a Cu-Al-Ni-Mn shape memory alloy prepared by selective laser melting. Mater Res 18(supple 2):35–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Li R, Shi Y, Liu J, Xie Z, Wang Z (2009) Selective laser melting W-10 wt.% Cu composite powders. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 48(5–8):597–605Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Niendorf T, Brenne F, Krooß P, Vollmer M, Günther J, Schwarze D, Biermann H (2016) Microstructural evolution and functional properties of Fe-Mn-Al-Ni shape memory alloy processed by selective laser melting. Metall Mater Trans A 47(6):2569–2573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gibson I, Rosen D, Stucker B (2015) Directed energy deposition processes. In Additive manufacturing technologies. 3D printing, rapid prototyping, and direct digital manufacturing. 2nd Edition. New York, Springer, pp 245–268Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Marattukalam JJ, Singh AK, Datta S, Das M, Balla VK, Bontha S, Kalpathy SK (2015) Microstructure and corrosion behavior of laser processed NiTi alloy. Mater Sci Eng C 57:309–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Xu X, Ling X, Yang M, Chen J, Huang W (2009) Microstructure evolution in laser solid forming of Ti-50wt% Ni alloy. J Alloys Compd 480(2):7820787Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bernard S, Balla VK, Bose S, Bandyopadhyay A (2012) Compression fatigue behavior of laser processed porous NiTi alloy. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 13:62–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Li X, Jianzhong S, Wong Z (2017) Intelligent materials: a review of applications in 4D printing. Assem. Autom. 37(2).  https://doi.org/10.1108/AA-11-2015-093/full/html
  50. 50.
    Campbell T, Tibbits S, Garrett B (2014) The next wave: 4D printing-programming the material world. Atlantic Council, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wang J, Wang Z, Song Z, Ren L, Liu Q, Ren L (2019) Biomimetic shape–color double-responsive 4D printing. Advanced Materials Technologies. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Ning J, Sievers D, Harmestani H, Liang S (2019) Analytical modeling of in-process temperature in powder bed manufacturing considering laser power absorption, latent heat, scanning strategy, and powder packing. Materials 12:5Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Ali MH, Yerbolat G, Islam G, Amangeldi S, Zhao MY (2019) Shape optimization for composite polymers in 3D printing. Int J Innov Technol Exploring Eng (8, 6C2):55–61Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Miao S, Castro N, Nowicki M, Xia L, Cui H, Zhou X, Zhang LG (2017) 4D printing of polymeric materials for tissue and organ regeneration. Mater Today 20(10):577–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mao Y, Ding Z, Yuan C, Ai S, Isakov M, Wu J, Wang T, Dunn ML, Qi HJ (2016) 3D printed reversible shape changing components with stimuli responsive materials. Sci Rep 6:24761.  https://doi.org/10.1038/srep24761
  56. 56.
    Trnková P, Knäusl B, Actis O, Bert C, Biegun AK, Boehlen TT, Furtado H, McClelland J, Mori S, Rinaldi I, Rucinski A, Knopf AC (2018) Clinical implementations of 4D pencil beam scanned particle therapy: report on the 4D treatment planning workshop 2016 and 2017. Phys Med 54:121–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zhou Y, Huang W, Kang S, Wu X, Lu H, Fu J, Cui H (2015) Smart three-dimensional lightweight structure triggered from a thin composite sheet via 3D printing technique. Sci Rep 6:1Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zhang Q, Zhang K, Hu G (2016) Smart three-dimensional lightweight structure triggered from a thin composite sheet via 3D printing technique. Sci Rep 6(1)Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Banudevi S (2016) Current perspectives on printing technology for biomedical applications. Biochem Physiol: Open Access 5:e154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Teoh JE, Zhao Y, An J, Chua CK, Liu Y (2017) Multi-stage responsive 4D printed smart structure through varying geometric thickness of shape memory polymer. Smart Mater Struct 26(12):125001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Liu Y (2010) Some factors affecting the transformation hysteresis in shape memory alloys. In Shape Memory Alloys, Nova Science Publisher, New York, pp 361–369Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Ge Q, Dunn CK, Qi HJ, Dunn ML (2014) Active origami by 4D printing. Smart Mater Struct 23(9)Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tobushi H, Hayashi S, Pieczyska E, Date K, Nishimura Y (2011) Three-way shape memory composite actuator. Mater Sci Forum 674:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Auricchio F, Boatti E, Conti M (2015) SMA biomedical applications. In Shape memory alloy engineering. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 307–341.  https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-099920-3.00011-5
  65. 65.
    Van Humbeeck J (2001) Shape memory alloys: a material and a technology. Adv Eng Mater 3:11Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hamilton RF, Palmer TA, Bimber BA (2015) Spatial characterization of the thermal-induced phase transformation throughout as-deposited additive manufactured NiTi bulk builds. Scr Mater 101:56–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Caputo MP, Berkowitz AE, Armstrong A, Mullner P, Solomon CV (2018) 4D printing of net shape parts made from Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys. Addit Manuf 21:579–588CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dasgupta R (2014) A look into Cu-based shape memory alloys: present scenario and future prospects. J Mater Res 29(16):1681–1698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    V. L. &. V. H.M., Process of manufacturing articles of thermoplastic synthetic resins. USA Patent US124460A, 18 March 1941Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zhou Y, Huang W, Kang S, Wu X, Lu H, Fu J, Cui H (2015) From 3D to 4D printing: approaches and typical applications. J Mech Sci Technol 29(10):4281–4288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Xie T (2010) Tunable polymer multi-shape memory effect. Nature 464(7286):267–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Xie T, Rousseau IA (2009) Facile tailoring of thermal transition temperatures of epoxy shape memory polymers. Polymer 50(8):1852–1856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Ahmed EM (2015) Hydrogel: preparation, characterization, and applications: a review. J Adv Res 6(2):105–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Bakarich SE, Gorkin R, Panhuis MI, Spinks GM (2015) 4D printing with mechanically robust, thermally actuating hydrogels. Macromol Rapid Commun 36(12):1211–1217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Suo Z (2012) Mechanics of stretchable electronics and soft machines. MRS Bull 37(3):218–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jayaramudu T, Li Y, Ko H, Shishir IR, Kim J (2016) Poly(acrylic acid)-poly(vynil alcohol) hydrogels for reconfigurable lens actuators. Int J Precis Eng Manuf-Green Technol 3(4):375–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Van Wijk A, van Wijk I (2015) Biomaterials. In 3D printing with biomaterials. ISO Press, pp. 35–56Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Dong Y, Ghataura A, Takagi H, Haroosh HJ, Nakagaito AN, Lau K-T (2014) Polylactic acid (PLA) biocomposites reinforced with coir fibres: evaluation of mechanical performance and multifunctional properties. Compos Part A 63:76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Mulakkal MC, Trask RS, Ting VP, Seddon AM (2018) Responsive cellulose-hydrogel composite ink for 4D printing. Mater Des 160:108–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Shankar R, Tushar KG, Spontak RJ (2007) Dielectric elastomers as next-generation polymeric actuators. Soft Matter 3(9):1116–1129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Yang Z, Herd GA, Clarke SM, Tajbakhsh AR, Teretjev EM, Huck WTS (2006) Thermal and UV shape shifting of surface topography. J Am Chem Soc 128(4):1074–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    O'Halloran A, O'Malley F, McHugh P (2008) A review on dielectric elastomer actuators, technology, applications, and challenges. J Appl Phys 104Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rossiter J, Walters P, Stoimenov B (2009) Printing 3D dielectric elastomer actuators for soft robotics. Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices 7287Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Coulter FB, Ianakiev A (2015) 4D printing inflatable silicone structures. 3D Print Addit Manuf 2(3):140–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ambulo CP, Burroughs JJ, Boothby JM, Kim H, Shankar MR, Ware TH Four-dimensional printing of liquid crystal elastomers. ACS 9(42):–37332, 37339Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yuan C, Roach DJ, Dunn CK, Mu Q, Kuang X, Yakacki CM, Wang TJ, Yu K, Qi HJ (2017) 3D printed reversible shape changing soft actuator assisted by liquid crystal elastomer. Soft Matter 13(33):5558–5568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hu J, Meng H, Li G, Ibekwe SI (2012) A review of stimuli-responsive polymers for smart textile applications. Smart Mater Struct 21:5Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Momeni F, Sabzpoushan S, Valizadeh R, Morad MR, Liu X, Ni J (2019) Plant leaf-mimetic smart wind turbine blades by 4D printing. Renew Energy 130:329–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Momeni F, Ni J (2018) Nature-inspired smart solar concentrators by 4D printing. Renew Energy 122:35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Baker AB, Bates SRG, Llewellyn-Jones TM, Valori LPB, Dicker MPM, Trask RS (2019) 4D printing with robust thermoplastic polyurethane hydrogel-elastomer trilayers. Mater Des 163Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Liu Y, Zhang W, Zhang F, Lan X, Leng J, Liu S, Jia X, Cotton C, Sun B, Gu B, Chou T-W (2018) Shape memory behavior and recovery force of 4D printed laminated Miura-origami structures subjected to compressive loading. Compos Part B 153:233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gladman AS, Matsumoto EA, Nuzzo RG, Mahadevan L, Lewis JA (2016) Biomimetic 4D printing. Nat Mater 15(4):413–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hingorani H, Zhang Y-F, Zhang B, Serjouei A, Ge Q (2019) Modified commercial UV curable elastomers for passive 4D printing. Int J Smart Nano Mater 1–12Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Su J-W, Gao W, Trinh K, Kenderes SM, Pulatsu ET, Zhang C, Whittington A, Lin M, Lin J (2019) 4D printing of polyurethane paint-based composites, Int J Smart Nano Mater 1–12Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Chen X, Liu X, Ouyang M, Chen J, Taiwo O, Xia Y, Childs PRN, Brandon NP, Wu B (2019) Multi-metal 4D printing with a desktop electrochemical 3D printer. Sci Rep 9Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Jeong HY, Lee E, Ha S, Kim N, Jun YC (2018) Multistable thermal actuators via multimaterial 4D printing. Adv Mater TechnolGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Shiblee MNI, Ahmed K, Kawakami M, Furukawa H (2019) 4D printing of shape-memory hydrogels for soft-robotic functions. Adv Mater TechnolGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Kuang X, Chen K, Dunn CK, Wu J, Li VCF, Qi HJ (2018) 3D printing of highly stretchable, shape-memory, and self-healing elastomer toward novel 4D printing. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 10(8):7381–7388Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Devillard CD, Mandon CA, Lambert SA, Blum LJ, Marquette CA (2018) Bioinspired multi-activities 4D printing objects: a new approach toward complex tissue engineering. Biotechnol J 13(12):e1800098.  https://doi.org/10.1002/biot.201800098
  100. 100.
    Andani MT, Saedi S, Turabi AS, Karamooz MR, Haberland C, Karaca HE, Elahinia M (2017) Mechanical and shape memory properties of porous Ni 50.1 Ti 49.9 alloys manufactured by selective laser melting. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 68:224–231Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Javaid M, Haleem A (2018) 4D printing applications in medical field: a brief review. Clinical Epidemiology and Global HealthGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    An J, Chua CK, Mironov V (2016) A perspective on 4D bioprinting. Int J Bioprinting 2Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Mandon C, Blum L, Marquette C (2017) 3D–4D printed objects: new bioactive material opportunities. Micromachines 8(4):102Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Behl M, Lendlein A (2011) Shape-memory polymers. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Keall PJ, Joshi S, Vedam SS, Siebers JV, Kini VR, Mohan R (2005) Four-dimensional radiotherapy planning for DMLC-based respiratory motion tracking. Med Phys 32(4):942–951Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Pei E, Shen J, Watling J (2015) Direct 3D printing of polymers onto textiles: experimental studies and applications. Rapid Prototyp J 21(5):556–571Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Howarth D DEZEEN, 27 February 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.dezeen.com/2019/02/27/black-panther-best-costume-design-oscar-3d-printing/. [Accessed 3 March 2019]
  108. 108.
    Liu P, Huang SH, Mokasdar A, Zhou H, Hou L (2013) The impact of additive manufacturing in the aircraft spare parts supply chain: supply chain operation reference (SCOR) model based analysis. Prod Plan Control 25(13–14):1169–1181Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Sokolowski W, Tan S, Pryor M (2004) Lightweight shape memory self-deployable structures for gossamer applications. In 45th AIAA/ASME/ASCE/AHS/ASC Structures, Structural Dynamics & Materials ConferenceGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Huo SV (2019) Development of composite springs using 4D printing method. Compos Struct 210:869–876Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Yoo YI, Lee JJ (2011) Two-way shape memory effect of NiTi under compressive loading cycles. Phys Procedia 22:449–454Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Liu Y, Leng J (2010) Applications of shape-memory polymers in aerospace. Shape-Memory Polymers and Multifunctional Composites pp. 233–266Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kamila S (2013) Introduction, classification and applications of smart materials: an overview. Am J Appl Sci 10(8):876–880Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Md. Hazrat Ali
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anuar Abilgaziyev
    • 1
  • Desmond Adair
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical & Aerospace EngineeringNazarbayev UniversityNur-SultanKazakhstan

Personalised recommendations