Characterization of the mechanical response of thermoplastic parts fabricated with 3D printing
- 81 Downloads
3D printing has gained great popularity due to its main feature of manufacturing complex geometries. The building process by adding successive layers generates mechanical properties that depend on the printing parameters, where build orientation is one of the most relevant factors. Due to this, the characterization of the mechanical response of these pieces is a challenging task of practical importance to estimate their lifespan. The aim of this study is to characterize the mechanical behavior and define a 3D constitutive model of polymer materials commonly used in 3D printing manufacturing. Hence, ABS and PLA were used with a low-cost desktop printer with which specimens were manufactured in two orthogonal orientations: flat and upright. Tensile and compression tests were performed to this end, where the Young’s modulus, yield, and maximum stresses were determined. In the tensile tests, the samples with vertical (upright) orientation showed lower values in the evaluated mechanical properties than the corresponding to the horizontal (flat) orientation. However, no significant difference caused by the printing orientations was observed in the compression tests. Different values of Young’s modulus and maximum strength were found between tensile and compression tests for the same material and orientation. Moreover, in order to describe the observed material response, a linear isotropic bimodular model is proposed. This constitutive model, which is fed with the previously obtained tensile and compression data, is used in the simulation of a four-point bending test where it is found to adequately represent the experimentally measured elastic behavior in the load-deflection curve. Thus, the combination of experiments and a bimodular constitutive model contributes to making better predictions of the mechanical response of structures made with 3D printing.
KeywordsAdditive manufacturing Thermoplastic materials Constitutive modeling
This study is supported and provided by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Research CONICYT (FONDECYT Projects 1180591 and 11170957).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 1.Columbus L (2017) The state of 3D printing 2017. Retrieved August 18, 2018, from https://www.forbes.com/sites/louiscolumbus/2017/05/23/the-state-of-3d-printing-2017/#a53d4e357ebf
- 2.Chacón JM, Caminero MA, García-Plaza E, Núñez PJ (2017) Additive manufacturing of PLA structures using fused deposition modelling: effect of process parameters on mechanical properties and their optimal selection. Mater Des 124:143–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.03.065 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.Khuong TL, Zhao G, Farid M, Yu R, Sun ZZ, Rizwan M (2014) Tensile strength and flexural strength testing of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) materials for biomimetic robotic applications. Journal of Biomimetics, Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering 20:11–21. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/JBBBE.20.11 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 6.Bertoldi M, Yardimci MA, Pistor CM, Guceri SI, Sala G (1998) Mechanical characterization of parts processed via fused deposition. Proceedings of the 1998 International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium. https://doi.org/10.26153/tsw/646
- 10.Hernandez R, Slaughter D, Whaley D, Tate J, Asiabanpour B (2016) Analyzing the tensile, compressive, and flexural properties of 3D printed ABS P430 plastic based on printing orientation using fused deposition modeling. In: Proceedings of the 27th annual international solid freeform fabrication symposium, pp 939–950Google Scholar
- 14.Montero M, Roundy S, Odell D (2001) Material characterization of fused deposition modeling (FDM) ABS by designed experiments. Soc Manuf Eng 1–21Google Scholar
- 18.Cantrell JT, Rohde S, Damiani D, Gurnani R, DiSandro L, Anton J, Young A, Jerez A, Steinbach D, Kroese C, Ifju PG (2017) Experimental characterization of the mechanical properties of 3D-printed ABS and polycarbonate parts. Rapid Prototyp J 23(4):811–824. https://doi.org/10.1108/RPJ-03-2016-0042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 25.Forster AM (2015) Materials testing standards for additive manufacturing of polymer Materials: State of the Art and Standards Applicability. National Institute of Standards and Technology U.S. https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.IR.8059
- 26.Materials EI (n.d.) Standard test method for tensile properties of plastics. ASTM D638. InsulatingStandards, Annual Book of ASTMGoogle Scholar
- 27.Materials, E. I. (n.d.). Standard test method for compressive properties of rigid plastics. ASTM D695. InsulatingStandards, Annual Book of ASTMGoogle Scholar
- 28.Materials EI (2010). Standard test method for flexural properties of unreinforced and reinforced plastics and electrical insulating materials by four-point bending. ASTM D6272. Annual Book of ASTM Standards, 08(June), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1520/D6272-10.1