Advertisement

Maskless microfabrication of nanowire-decorated porous membrane for rapid purification of contaminated water

  • Sanghun Shin
  • Jaebum Sung
  • Hojun Jeon
  • Hongyun SoEmail author
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 31 Downloads

Abstract

Due to widespread droughts and population increase, the rapid and sustainable purification of contaminated water is of major interest to human beings. Toward this end, this paper reports a handheld and efficient purification system using maskless micro/nanofabrication techniques. A porous polymer membrane decorated with nanomaterials was tailored to physically filter pollutants in contaminated water. To create the porous polymer membrane, curable polymer and black sugar powder were used for a facile and cost-effective fabrication method. The black sugar particles linked in cured polymer were selectively dissolved in hot water, forming micro-sized pores for filtering out pollutants. The nanowires were hydrothermally grown onto the porous membrane to further improve the purification performance by capturing finer pollutants between nanowires. The combination of nanowires and 50-wt% concentration of black sugar particle, forming a porosity of ~ 27.71% showed the minimum residual rate (i.e., weight of pollutants in purified water) of 0.981 mg/ml. This study supports the use of hierarchical porous membrane for the efficient and sustainable purification of contaminated water within a short period time.

Keywords

Microfabrication Porous membrane Porosity Purification Nanowires 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by Korean Ministry of Education (Grant No. NRF-2018R1D1A1B07051411).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Das R, Ali ME, Hamid SBA, Ramakrishna S, Chowdhury ZZ (2014) Carbon nanotube membranes for water purification: a bright future in water desalination. Desalination 336:97–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kim SJ, Ko SH, Kang KH, Han J (2010) Direct seawater desalination by ion concentration polarization. Nat Nanotechnol 5:297–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kar S, Bindal RC, Tewari PK (2012) Carbon nanotube membranes for desalination and water purification: challenges and opportunities. Nano Today 7:385–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Geise GM, Lee H-S, Miller DJ, Freeman BD, McGrath JE, Paul DR (2010) Water purification by membranes: the role of polymer science. J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 48:1685–1718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Han Y, Xu Z, Gao C (2013) Ultrathin graphene nanofiltration membrane for water purification. Adv Funct Mater 23:3693–3700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Savage N, Diallo MS (2005) Nanomaterials and water purification: opportunities and challenges. J Nanopart Res 7:331–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Werber JR, Osuji CO, Elimelech M (2016) Materials for next-generation desalination and water purification membranes. Nat Rev Mater 1:16018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Du JR, Peldszus S, Huck PM, Feng X (2009) Modification of poly(vinylidene fluoride) ultrafiltration membranes with poly(vinyl alcohol) for fouling control in drinking water treatment. Water Res 43:4559–4568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mills A, Davies RH, Worsley D (1993) Water purification by semiconductor photocatalysis. Chem Soc Rev 22:417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pintar A (2003) Catalytic processes for the purification of drinking water and industrial effluents. Catal Today 77:451–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Andreozzi R (1999) Advanced oxidation processes (AOP) for water purification and recovery. Catal Today 53:51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Li Puma D, Khor JN, Brucato A (2004) Modeling of an annular photocatalytic reactor for water purification: oxidation of pesticides. Environ Sci Technol 38:3737–3745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Matthews RW (1987) Solar-electric water purification using photocatalytic oxidation with TiO2 as a stationary phase. Sol Energy 38:405–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lee H-J, Sarfert F, Strathmann H, Moon S-H (2002) Designing of an electrodialysis desalination plant. Desalination 142:267–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Deng D, Aouad W, Braff WA, Schlumpberger S, Suss ME, Bazant MZ (2015) Water purification by shock electrodialysis: deionization, filtration, separation, and disinfection. Desalination 357:77–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ambashta RD, Sillanpää M (2010) Water purification using magnetic assistance: a review. J Hazard Mater 180:38–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reddy DHK, Yunab Y-S (2016) Spinel ferrite magnetic adsorbents: alternative future materials for water purification? Coord Chem Rev 315:90–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Simpson DR (2008) Biofilm processes in biologically active carbon water purification. Water Res 42:2839–2848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Taguchi K, Nakata K (2009) Evaluation of biological water purification functions of inland lakes using an aquatic ecosystem model. Ecol Model 220:2255–2271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Haeberle S, Zengerle R (2007) Microfluidic platforms for lab-on-a-chip applications. Lab Chip 7:1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Srinivasan V, Pamula VK, Fair RB (2004) An integrated digital microfluidic lab-on-a-chip for clinical diagnostics on human physiological fluids. Lab Chip 4:310–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Reyes DR, Iossifidis D, Auroux P-A, Manz A (2002) Micro total analysis systems. 1. Introduction, theory, and technology. Anal Chem 74:2623–2636CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhang R, Liu Y, He M, Su Y, Zhao X, Elimelech M, Jiang Z (2016) Antifouling membranes for sustainable water purification: strategies and mechanisms. Chem Soc Rev 45:5888–5924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Leiknes T, Ødegaard H, Myklebust H (2004) Removal of natural organic matter (NOM) in drinking water treatment by coagulation–microfiltration using metal membranes. J Membr Sci 242:47–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    So H, Lee K, Murthy N, Pisano AP (2014) All-in-one nanowire-decorated multifunctional membrane for rapid cell lysis and direct DNA isolation. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:20693–20699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Grigoras K, Sikanen S, Kotiaho T, Kostiainen R (2005) Fabrication of porous membrane filter from P-type silicon. Phys Status Solidi 202:1624–1628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lee W, Ji R, Gösele U, Nielsch K (2006) Fast fabrication of long-range ordered porous alumina membranes by hard anodization. Nat Mater 5:741–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kanamori Y, Hane K, Sai H, Yugami H (2001) 100 nm period silicon antireflection structures fabricated using a porous alumina membrane mask. Appl Phys Lett 78:142–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zheng S, Lin H, Liu J-Q, Balic M, Datar R, Cote RJ, Tai Y-C (2007) Membrane microfilter device for selective capture, electrolysis and genomic analysis of human circulating tumor cells. J Chromatogr A 1162:154–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Yadroitsev I, Shishkovsky I, Bertrand P, Smurov I (2009) Manufacturing of fine-structured 3D porous filter elements by selective laser melting. Appl Surf Sci 255:5523–5527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Zhao X, Li L, Li B, Zhang J, Wang A (2014) Durable superhydrophobic/superoleophilic PDMS sponges and their applications in selective oil absorption and in plugging oil leakages. J Mater Chem A 2:18281–18287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gates B, Yin Y, Xia Y (1999) Fabrication and characterization of porous membranes with highly ordered three-dimensional periodic structures. Chem Mater 11:2827–2836CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wang H, Sung I, Li X, Kim D (2004) Fabrication of porous SiC ceramics with special morphologies by sacrificing template method. J Porous Mater 11:265–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Xue R, Behera P, Xu J, Viapiano MS, Lannutti JJ (2014) Polydimethylsiloxane core–polycaprolactone shell nanofibers as biocompatible. Real-Time Oxygen Sensors Sensors Actuators B Chem 192:697–707CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Tronicke J, Holliger K, Barrash W, Knoll MD (2004) Multivariate analysis of cross-hole georadar velocity and attenuation tomograms for aquifer zonation. Water Resour Res 40:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    M. Jianliang, S. Haikun, and B. Ling, The application on intrusion detection based on K-means cluster algorithm. Proc. - 2009 Int. Forum Inf. Technol. Appl. IFITA 2009 1 (2009) 150–152Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    E. Buza, A. Akagic and S. Omanovic, Skin Detection based on image color segmentation with histogram and K-means clustering. 2017 10th Int. Conf. Electr. Electron. Eng. (2017) 1181–1186Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Jain AK (2010) Data clustering: 50 years beyond K-means. Pattern Recogn Lett 31:651–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringHanyang UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  2. 2.Institute of Nano Science and TechnologyHanyang UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations