Specific Energy and G ratio of Grinding Cemented Carbide under Different Cooling and Lubrication Conditions

  • Wentao Wu
  • Changhe LiEmail author
  • Min YangEmail author
  • Yanbin Zhang
  • Dongzhou Jia
  • Yali Hou
  • Runze Li
  • Huajun Cao
  • Zhiguang Han


Workpiece surface integrity deterioration is a bottleneck in minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) grinding cemented carbide. However, nanofluids prepared by adding nanoparticles with excellent antifriction and antiwear properties achieve improved lubrication characteristics. In this study, a surface grinding experiment under four working conditions (i.e., dry, flood, MQL, and nanofluid minimum quantity lubrication (NMQL)) with cemented carbide YG8 is conducted to confirm the effectiveness of NMQL grinding. Results show that the minimum specific grinding force (Ft′ = 13.47 N/mm, Fn′ = 2.84 N/mm), friction coefficient (μ = 0.21), specific grinding energy (U = 17.02 J/mm3), and the largest G ratio of 6.52 are obtained using NMQL grinding. Furthermore, no evident furrow and large deformation layers are found on the surface of the workpiece. Moreover, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images display that the debris is strip-shaped and slenderer than that under the other working conditions. Meanwhile, the blockage of the wheel pore is improved. Therefore, the validity of NMQL in grinding cemented carbide is verified.


Grinding Nanofluid minimum quantity lubrication Cemented carbide YG8 Specific energy G ratio CBN wheel 



Minimum quantity lubrication


Nanofluid minimum quantity lubrication


Scanning electron microscope


Wheel speed (r/min)


Feed rate (mm/min)


Grinding depth (μm)


Nozzle angle (°)


Gas pressure (MPa)


Tangential grinding force (N)


Normal grinding force (N)


Grinding width (mm)


Specific tangential grinding force (N/mm)


Specific normal grinding force (N/mm)


Friction coefficient


Specific grinding energy (J/mm3)


Total energy consumed in grinding (J)


Removal rate of unit volume material (mm3/s)

G ratio

Grinding ratio


Unit volume of material removal


Unit volume of grinding wheel wear


Average diameter of the grinding wheel (mm)


Radius change of the grinding wheel before and after grinding (mm)


Workpiece volume before grinding (mm3)


Workpiece volume after grinding (mm3)


Initial diameter of grinding wheel (mm)


Radial diameter of wheel after grinding (mm)


Funding information

This research was financially supported by the following Foundation items: The National Natural Science Foundation of China (51575290 and 51806112), Major Research Project of Shandong Province (2017GGX30135 and 2018GGX103044), Shandong Provincial Natural Science Foundation, China (ZR2017PEE002 and ZR2017PEE011).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wentao Wu
    • 1
  • Changhe Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Min Yang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yanbin Zhang
    • 1
  • Dongzhou Jia
    • 2
  • Yali Hou
    • 1
  • Runze Li
    • 3
  • Huajun Cao
    • 4
  • Zhiguang Han
    • 5
  1. 1.School of Mechanical and Automotive EngineeringQingdao University of TechnologyQingdaoChina
  2. 2.School of Mechanical EngineeringInner Mongolia University for NationalitiesTongliaoChina
  3. 3.Department of Biomedical EngineeringUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  4. 4.School of Mechanical EngineeringChongqing UniversityChongqingChina
  5. 5.Shandong Peng’ao Oil Technology Co. LtdQingzhouChina

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