Advertisement

Unit block–based process planning strategy of WAAM for complex shell–shaped component

  • Yun Zhao
  • Fang Li
  • Shujun ChenEmail author
  • Zhenyang Lu
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 100 Downloads

Abstract

Wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) has become a promising metal 3D printing technology due to its high efficiency and low cost. Process planning is a critical step in WAAM that influences the process output attributes in terms of surface accuracy, deposition rate, and material utilization. Generally, traditional methods are only able to satisfy the variation of bead width, regardless of the control on bead height, which may not obtain the optimal process output attributes. To solve this issue, a unit block–based process planning strategy is proposed, which aims at slicing the complex component into parallel layers with uneven layer thickness. A unit block is defined as the deposited block per unit time, whose dimensions can be controlled by varying the process parameters. Once the part’s 3D model as well as the optimization criteria is given, the best unit blocks that fit this 3D model are determined and so are the process parameters. This enables to generate varying process parameters subjected to the part’s geometrical features and ultimately the optimal process output that balances surface accuracy, deposition rate, and material utilization. The case study for an aerospace component proves that the proposed method is capable of improving the surface waviness by 46.2% and effective deposition rate by 65.6% as well as the material utilization by 4.2% with block unit width of 6 mm.

Keywords

Additive manufacturing Wire arc additive manufacturing Multi-objective optimization Process planning strategy 

Notes

Funding information

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 51805013) and the Foundation Research Fund of Beijing University of Technology (no. 001000546318526).

References

  1. 1.
    Thompson MK, Moroni G, Vaneker T, Fadel G (2016) Design for additive manufacturing: trends, opportunities, considerations, and constraints. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 65(2):737–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ding D, Pan Z, Cuiuri D, Li H (2015) Wire-feed additive manufacturing of metal components: technologies, developments and future interests. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 81(1-4):465–481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kruth JP, Froyen L, Vaerenbergh JV (2004) Selective laser melting of iron-based powder [J]. J Mater Process Technol 149(1):616–622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Murr LE, Gaytan SM, Ramirez DA (2012) Metal fabrication by additive manufacturing using laser and electron beam melting technologies. J Mater Sci Technol 28(1):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    ZhongY RLE, Wikman S, Koptyug A, Liu L, Cui D, Shen ZJ (2017) Additive manufacturing of iter first wall panel parts by two approaches: selective laser melting and electron beam melting. Fusion Eng Des 116:24–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Derekar KS (2018) A review of wire arc additive manufacturing and advances in wire arc additive manufacturing of aluminium. Mater Sci Technol 34(8):1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sharma J, Simhambhatla S (2015) Additive manufacturing of complex shapes through weld-deposition and feature based slicing. The ASME 2015 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition (ASME/IMECE-2015). The Gorge bush Convention Center, HoustonGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang HT, Feng JC, He P (2009) The arc features and metal transfer behaviour of cold metal transfer and its use in joining aluminium to zinc-coated steel. Mater Sci Eng A 499(1):111–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Feng J, Zhang H, He P (2009) The CMT short-circuiting metal transfer process and its use in thin aluminium sheets welding. Mater Des 30(5):1850–1852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pickin CG, Williams SW, Lunt M (2011) Characterisation of the cold metal transfer (CMT) process and its application for low dilution cladding. J Mater Process Technol 211(3):496–502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gomez Ortega A, Corona Galvan L, Deschaux-Beaume F (2018) Effect of process parameters on the quality of aluminium alloy Al5Si deposits in wire and arc additive manufacturing using a cold metal transfer process. Sci Technol Weld Join 23(4):316–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kazanas P, Deherkar P, Almeida P (2012) Fabrication of geometrical features using wire and arc additive manufacture [J]. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 226(6):1042–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Almeida P, Williams S (2010) Innovative process model of Ti-6Al-4V additive layer manufacturing using cold metal transfer (CMT). In Proceedings of the 21th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium. University of Texas at Austin, AustinGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nagesh DS, Datta GL (2002) Prediction of weld bead geometry and penetration in shielded metal-arc welding using artificial neural networks. J Mater Process Technol 123(2):303–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ding D, Pan Z, Cuiuri D (2015) A multi-bead overlapping model for robotic wire and arc additive manufacturing (WAAM). Robot Comput Integr Manuf 31:101–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Murtezaoglu Y, Plakhotnik D, Stautner M, Vaneker T, van Houten FJ (2018) Geometry-based process planning for multi-axis support-free additive manufacturing. Proc CIRP 78:73–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chalvin M, Campocasso S, Baizeau T, Hugel V (2019) Automatic multi-axis path planning for thin-wall tubing through robotized wire deposition. Proc CIRP 79:89–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Flores J, Garmendia I, Pujana J (2019) Toolpath generation for the manufacture of metallic components by means of the laser metal deposition technique. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 101:2111–2120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Li F, Chen S, Wu Z, Yan Z (2018) Adaptive process control of wire and arc additive manufacturing for fabricating complex-shaped components. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 96:871–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jun W, Ting-Wei C, Yu-An J (2018) Variable bead width of material extrusion-based additive manufacturing. J Zhejiang Univ Sci A 20:73–82Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tuo S, Bingheng L, Ting S (2018) Closed-loop control of variable width deposition in laser metal deposition. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 97:4167–4178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ding D, Pan Z, Cuiuri D (2016) Bead modelling and implementation of adaptive MAT path in wire and arc additive manufacturing. Robot Comput Integr Manuf 39:32–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Martina F, Mehnen J, Williams SW (2012) Investigation of the benefits of plasma deposition for the additive layer manufacture of Ti–6Al–4 V. J Mater Process Technol 212(6):1377–1386CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yun Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fang Li
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shujun Chen
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Zhenyang Lu
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.College of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Electronics TechnologyBeijing University of TechnologyBeijingChina
  2. 2.Engineering Research Center of Advanced Manufacturing Technology for Automotive Components-Ministry of EducationBeijing University of TechnologyBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations