Effect of selective laser melting process parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel helical micro-diameter spring

  • Mingji Huang
  • Zongxin ZhangEmail author
  • Ping Chen


The effects of process parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of the 316L stainless steel helical micro-diameter spring (316L HMDS) fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) were explored. By optimizing SLM process parameters, the near-full density (> 99%) SLM-316L HMDS can be manufactured. The SLM-316L HMDS exhibits typical layered morphology consisting of micron-sized melt pools and columnar grains whose growth orientations are consistent with the temperature gradient. Lower hatch space reduces the formation of voids, resulting in better density, elongation, and ultimate tensile strength of the SLM-316L HMDS. The form angle significantly affects the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, and obvious dimples appear on the fracture surface, demonstrating toughness fracture. The experimental results establish the correlation between the process parameters of SLM and the microstructure and macro-mechanical properties of the SLM-316L HMDS.


Selective laser melting 316L stainless steel Helical micro-diameter spring Microstructure Mechanical properties 


Funding information

The authors would like to thank the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2018YFC0810500) for financial support.


  1. 1.
    Zhou J, Wang S, Kang L, Chen T (2011) Design and modeling on stranded wires helical springs. Chin J Mech Eng-En 24(4):626–637. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    de Aguiar RAA, Pereira JHI, de Souza CG, Pacheco PMCL, savi MA (2009) Shape memory alloy helical springs: modeling, simulation and experimental analysis. Mater Sci Forum 758:147–156. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kolesnikov AM (2018) Deformations of helical spring and cuboid into hollow cylinders. Meccanica 53(8):2161–2170. MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Girchenko AA, Eremeyev VA, Altenbach H (2012) Interaction of a helical shell with a nonlinear viscous fluid. Int J Eng Sci 61:53–58. CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Candido de Sousa V, Sugino C, De Marqui Junior C, Erturk A (2018) Adaptive locally resonant metamaterials leveraging shape memory alloys. J Appl Phys 124:1–11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Babaee S, Viard N, Wang P, Fang NX, Bertoldi K (2016) Harnessing deformation to switch on and off the propagation of sound. Adv Mater 28:1631–1635. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Miranda G, Faria S, Bartolomeu F, Pinto E, Madeira S, Mateus A, Carreira P, Alves N, Silva FS, Carvalho O (2016) Predictive models for physical and mechanical properties of 316L stainless steel produced by selective laser melting. Mater Sci Eng A 657:43–56. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gao W, Zhang Y, Ramanujan D, Ramani K, Chen Y, Williarms CB, Wang CCL, Shin YC, Zhang S, Zavattieri PD (2015) The status, challenges, and future of additive manufacturing in engineering. Comput Aided Des 69:65–69. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li R, Shi Y, Wang Z, Wang L, Liu J, Jing W (2010) Densification behavior of gas and water atomized 316L stainless steel powder during selective laser melting. Appl Surf Sci 256(13):4350–4356. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    DebRoy T, Wei HL, Zuback JS, Mukherjee T, Elmer JW, Milewski JO, beese AM, Wilson-Heid A, De A, Zhang W (2018) Additive manufacturing of metallic components - process, structure and properties. Prog Mater Sci 92:112–224. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sutton AT, Kriewall CS, Leu MC, Newkirk JW (2017) Powder characterization techniques and effects of powder characteristics on part properties in powder-bed fusion processes. Virtual Phys Prototyping 12(1):3–29. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xu X, Mi G, Luo Y, Jiang P, Shao X, Wang C (2017) Morphologies, microstructures, and mechanical properties of samples produced using laser metal deposition with 316L stainless steel wire. Opt Lasers Eng 94:1–11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Liu YJ, Li SJ, Wang HJ, Hou WT, Hao YL, Yang R, Sercombe TB, Zhang LC (2016) Microstructure, defects and mechanical behavior of beta-type titanium porous structures manufactured by electron beam melting and selective laser melting. Acta Mater 113:56–67. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mertens A, Reginster S, Paydas H, Contrepois Q, Dormal T, Lemaire O, Lecomte-Beckers J (2014) Mechanical properties of alloy Ti-6Al-4V and of stainless steel 316L processed by selective laser melting: influence of out-of-equilibrium microstructures. Powder Metall 57(3):184–190. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Zhou X, Liu X, Zhang D, Shen Z, Liu W (2015) Balling phenomena in selective laser melted tungsten. J Mater Process Technol 222:33–42. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cherry JA, Davies HM, Mehmood S, Lavery NP, Brown SGR, Sienz J (2015) Investigation into the effect of process parameters on microstructural and physical properties of 316L stainless steel parts by selective laser melting. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 76:869–879. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Li R, Liu J, Shi Y, Wang L, Jiang W (2012) Balling behavior of stainless steel and nickel powder during selective laser melting process. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 59:1025–1035. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liverani E, Toschi S, Ceschini L, Fortunato A (2017) Effect of selective laser melting (SLM) process parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of 316L austenitic stainless steel. J Mater Process Technol 249:255–263. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gu D, Shen Y (2009) Balling phenomena in direct laser sintering of stainless steel powder: metallurgical mechanisms and control methods. Mater Des 30:2903–2910. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kong D, Ni X, Dong C, Zhang L, Man C, Yao J, Xiao K, Li X (2018) Heat treatment effect on the microstructure and corrosion behavior of 316L stainless steel fabricated by selective laser melting for proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Electrochim Acta 276:293–303. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kong D, Dong C, Ni X, Zhang L, Yao J, Man C, Cheng X, Xiao K, Li X (2019) Mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of selective lasermelted 316L stainless steel after different heat treatment processes. J Mater Sci Technol 35:1499–1507. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sun Y, Moroz A, Alrbaey K (2014) Sliding wear characteristics and corrosion behaviour of selective laser melted 316L stainless steel. J Mater Eng Perform 23(2):518–526. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Röttger A, Geenen K, Windmann M, Binner F, Theisen W (2016) Comparison of microstructure and mechanical properties of 316L austenitic steel processed by selective laser melting with hot-isostatic pressed and cast material. Mater Sci Eng A 678:365–376. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Andani MT, Karamooz-Ravari MR, Mirzaeifar R, Ni J (2018) Micromechanics modeling of metallic alloys 3D printed by selective laser melting. Mater Des 137:204–213. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wang Z, Denlinger E, Michaleris P, Stoica AD, Dong M, Beese AM (2017) Residual stress mapping in Inconel 625 fabricated through additive manufacturing: method for neutron diffraction measurements to validate thermomechanical model predictions. Mater Des 113:169–177. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Yadollahi A, Shamsaei N, Thompson SM, Seely DW (2015) Effects of process time interval and heat treatment on the mechanical and microstructural properties of direct laser deposited 316L stainless steel. Mater Sci Eng A 644:171–183. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Liu Y, Zhang J, Pang Z (2018) Numerical and experimental investigation into the subsequent thermal cycling during selective laser melting of multi-layer 316L stainless steel. Opt Laser Technol 98:23–32. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Yan C, Liang H, Hussein A, Young P, Rayment D (2014) Advanced lightweight 316L stainless steel cellular lattice structures fabricated via selective laser melting. Mater Des 55:533–541. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sing SL, Wiriaa FE, Yeong WY (2018) Selective laser melting of lattice structures: a statistical approach to manufacturability and mechanical behavior. Robot Cim-Int Manuf 49:170–180. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zaharia SM, Lancea C, Chicos LA, Pop MA, Caputo G, Serra E (2017) Mechanical properties and corrosion behavior of 316L stainless steel honeycomb cellular cores manufactured by selective laser melting. T Famena 41(4):11–24. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gümrük R, Mines RAW, Karadeniz S (2018) Determination of strain rate sensitivity of micro-struts manufactured using the selective laser melting method. J Mater Eng Perform 27(3):1016–1032. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kong D, Ni X, Dong C, Zhang L, Man C, Cheng X, Li X (2019) Anisotropy in the microstructure and mechanical property for the bulk and porous 316L stainless steel fabricated via selective laser melting. Mater Lett 235:1–5. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Won Y, kim A, Yang W, Jeong S, Moon J (2014) A highly stretchable, helical copper nanowire conductor exhibiting a stretchability of 700%. NPG Asia Mater 6(132):1–7. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Suryawanshi J, Prashanth KG, Ramamurty U (2017) Mechanical behavior of selective laser melted 316L stainless steel. Mater Sci Eng A 696:113–121. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Simchi A (2006) Direct laser sintering of metal powders mechanism, kinetics and microstructural features. Mater Sci Eng A 428:148–158. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tucho WM, Lysne VH, Austbø H, Sjolyst-Kverneland A, Hansen V (2018) Investigation of effects of process parameters on microstructure and hardness of SLM manufactured SS316L. J Alloys Compd 740:910–925. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Riemer A, Leuders S, Thöne M, Richard HA, Tröster T, Niendorf T (2014) On the fatigue crack growth behavior in 316L stainless steel manufactured by selective laser melting. Eng Fract Mech 120:15–25. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhu Y, Lin G, Khonsari MM, Zhang J, Yang H (2018) Material characterization and lubricating behaviors of porous stainless steel fabricated by selective laser melting. J Mater Process Technol 262:41–52. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Wang D, Song C, Yang Y, Bai Y (2016) Investigation of crystal growth mechanism during selective laser melting and mechanical property characterization of 316L stainless steel parts. Mater Des 100:291–299. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Zhuo Z, Xia S, Bai Q, Zhou B (2018) The effect of grain boundary character distribution on the mechanical properties at different strain rates of a 316L stainless steel. J Mater Sci 53:2844–2858. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kong D, Ni X, Dong C, Lei X, Liang Z, Cheng M, Yao J, Cheng X, Li X (2018) Bio-functional and anti-corrosive 3D printing 316L stainless steel fabricated by selective laser melting. Mater Des 152:88–101. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of Science & Technology BeijingBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations