Numerical and experimental investigation on material flow in gear forced throughfeed rolling process

  • Ziyong Ma
  • Yuanxin LuoEmail author
  • Yongqin Wang
  • Dave C. Willens


The cylindrical die forced throughfeed rolling process for gears was proposed to overcome an end-effect behavior of the standard radial-feed gear rolling process which can result in pitch variation and excessive axial end-flow. In the rolling process, the workpieces are pushed through the gap of the rolling tools to form the gear teeth. Understanding of material flow is important for grasping the cause of defect formation and improving the quality of formed gears. In this paper, the material flow behavior of the gear forced throughfeed rolling process was studied on the flow velocity and displacement of key locations by using finite element analysis (FEA). The experiment was also conducted and its blank was sliced to thin pieces, and the grid pattern (GP) was utilized to track the trajectory of flowing materials. The results show that the end-flow is located at the root rather than the tooth crest of the formed workpiece, because the compressive forces from rolling tool mainly take effect at the root of the formed workpiece. The asymmetry of circumferential flow displacements with respect to the gear teeth results in the asymmetrical flanks defect, and this is due to the meshing between teeth of rolling tool and workpiece. The local displacement in the radial direction is larger than that in the circumferential direction.


Gear forced throughfeed rolling process Material flow FEA Grid pattern (GP) 



The authors extend sincere gratitude to Yawen Wang, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas, USA, for his editing and technical advice.

Funding information

This study was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51775062) and the Research Project of State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Transmission (Grant No. SKLMT-ZZKT-2015T01).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ziyong Ma
    • 1
  • Yuanxin Luo
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Yongqin Wang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Dave C. Willens
    • 4
  1. 1.College of Mechanical EngineeringChongqing UniversityChongqingChina
  2. 2.State Key Lab of Mechanical TransmissionChongqing UniversityChongqingChina
  3. 3.National Demonstration Center for Experimental Mechanical Foundation EducationChongqing UniversityChongqingChina
  4. 4.Kinefac CorporationWorcesterUSA

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