Advertisement

Mechanical evaluation of hybrid natural fibre–reinforced polymeric composites for automotive bumper beam: a review

  • O. T. AdesinaEmail author
  • T. Jamiru
  • E. R. Sadiku
  • O. F. Ogunbiyi
  • L. W. Beneke
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 11 Downloads

Abstract

The use of lightweight materials in the automobile is one of the possible ways to achieve fuel efficiency demand and reduce the environmental pollution from greenhouse gases created via the automotive industry. The numerous advantages of natural fibre, such as low density, recyclability, biodegradability, relative ease of availability and low cost have brought it to spotlight for a variety of automotive applications. This article expounds the use of natural fibres and its hybrid as reinforcement in a synthetic polymer matrix for automotive polymer bumper beam material. The various attempts by researchers in their consideration and selection of high-performing materials for the development of automotive composite bumper beam were presented. Possible modifications employed to improve the relevance of natural fibre for this application over synthetic fibre were also considered. Lower impact properties were deduced from the mechanical evaluation of the various researches using hybrid natural fibre as a major limitation when compared with the conventional glass mat thermoplastics and the long fibre–reinforced thermoplastics used as typical bumper beam material. The use of various modifiers as tougheners has not been able to achieve comparable strength with GMT and LFRT. However, the need for nanobiocomposite should be explored for possible improvement on the impact properties in this area of application.

Keywords

Hybrid Natural fibre Polymer composite Automotive bumper Bumper beam 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Netravali AN, Chabba S (2003) Composites get greener. Mater Today 4(6):22–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cheah LW (2010) Cars on a diet: the material and energy impacts of passenger vehicle weight reduction in the US (Doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Carbon L (2009) The UK low carbon transition plan: National strategy for climate and energy. Technical report, UK Dept. of E & CCGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pandey JK, Ahn SH, Lee CS (2010) Recent advances in the application of natural fiber based composites. Macromol Mater Eng 295(11):975–989CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bledzki AK, Franciszczak P, Osman Z (2015) Elbadawi M (2015) Polypropylene biocomposites reinforced with softwood, abaca, jute, and kenaf fibers. Ind Crop Prod 70:91–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pickering K (ed) (2008) Properties and performance of natural-fibre composites. ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Li Y, Lin Z, Jiang A, Chen G (2004) Experimental study of glass-fiber mat thermoplastic material impact properties and lightweight automobile body analysis. Mater Des 25(7):579–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jambor A, Beyer M (1997) New cars—new materials. Mater Des 18(4-6):203–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lyu M, Choi YTG (2015) Research trends in polymer materials for use in lightweight vehicles. Int J Precis Eng Manuf 16(1):213–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sadiku E (2009) Automotive components composed of polyolefins. In Polyolefin Fibres Woodhead Publishing. (pp 81–132)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sadiku R, Ibrahim D, Agboola O, Owonubi SJ, Fasiku VO, Kupolati WK, Jamiru T, Eze, AA, Adekomaya OS, Varaprasad K, Agwuncha SC (2017) Automotive components composed of polyolefins, In Polyolefin Fibres (Second Edition). Elsevier. pp 449–496Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stewart R (2010) Automotive composites offer lighter solutions. Reinf Plast 54(2):22–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ünlü BS, Atik E, Köksal S (2009) Tribological properties of polymer-based journal bearings. Mater Des 30(7):2618–2622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chang L, Zhang Z, Zhang H, Schlarb AK (2006) On the sliding wear of nanoparticle filled polyamide 66 composites. Compos Sci Technol 66(16):3188–3198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gaikwad D, Sonkusare R, Wagh S (2012) Composite leaf spring for light weight vehicle-materials, manufacturing process, advantages & limitations. International Journal of Engineering and Technoscience 3(2):410–413Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Aramide F, Atanda P, Olorunniwo O (2012) Mechanical properties of a polyester fibre glass composite. International Journal of Composite Materials 2(6):147–151Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mathew MT, Padak NV, Rocha LA, Gomes JR, Alagirusamy R, Deopura BL, Fangueiro R (2007) Tribological properties of the directionally oriented warp knit GFRP composites. Wear 263(7-12):930–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chowdhury F, Hosur M, Jeelani S (2006) Studies on the flexural and thermomechanical properties of woven carbon/nanoclay-epoxy laminates. Mater Sci Eng A 421(1-2):298–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yan L, Chouw N, Yuan X (2012) Improving the mechanical properties of natural fibre fabric reinforced epoxy composites by alkali treatment. J Reinf Plast Compos 31(6):425–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Parliament E (2000) Directive 2000/53/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of September 18 2000 on End-Of Life Vehicles. Off J Eur Communities 2000:269Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Prabhakaran S, Chinnarasu K, Kumar MS (2012) Design and fabrication of composite bumper for light passenger vehicles. International Journal of Modern Engineering Research 2(4):2552–2556Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sapuan SM, Maleque MA, Hameedullah M, Suddin MN, Ismail N (2005) A note on the conceptual design of polymeric composite automotive bumper system. J Mater Process Technol 159(2):145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Davoodi MM, Sapuan SM, Ahmad D, Ali A, Khalina A, Jonoobi M (2010) Mechanical properties of hybrid kenaf/glass reinforced epoxy composite for passenger car bumper beam. Mater Des 31(10):4927–4932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yim HJ, Kim M-S, Park J, Heo S-J, Park DK (2005) Shape optimization of bumper beam cross section for low speed crash. No. 2005-01-0880. SAE Technical PaperGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bijesh K (2010) Effect of fiber loading on mechanical behavior of chopped glass fiber reinforced polymer composites (Doctoral dissertation, National Institute of Technology Rourkela)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kim D-H, Kim H-G, Kim H-S (2015) Design optimization and manufacture of hybrid glass/carbon fiber reinforced composite bumper beam for automobile vehicle. Compos Struct 131:742–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ticoalu A, Aravinthan T, Cardona F (2010) A review of c urrent development in natural fiber composites for structural and infrastructure applications. In Proceedings of the Southern Region Engineering Conference (SREC 2010) (pp 113–117). Engineers AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mohammed L, Ansari MNM, Pua G, Jawaid M, Saiful Islam M (2015) A review on natural fiber reinforced polymer composite and its applications. International Journal of Polymer Science.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/243947
  29. 29.
    Väisänen T, Haapala A, Lappalainen R, Tomppo L (2016) Utilization of agricultural and forest industry waste and residues in natural fiber-polymer composites: a review. Waste Manag 54:62–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brief L (2011) Opportunities in natural fiber composites. Lucintel LLC, Irving (TX)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jeyanthi S, Purushothaman M, Rani JJ (2011) Development of ecofriendly thermoplastics for automotive components. In International Conference on Green technology and environmental Conservation (GTEC-2011 ) (pp. 47–50). IEEEGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Assarar M, Scida D, El Mahi A, Poilâne C, Ayad R (2011) Influence of water ageing on mechanical properties and damage events of two reinforced composite materials: flax–fibres and glass–fibres. Mater Des 32(2):788–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Parikh D, Chen Y, Sun L (2006) Reducing automotive interior noise with natural fiber nonwoven floor covering systems. Text Res J 76(11):813–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Njuguna J, Wambua P, Pielichowski K, Kayvantash K (2011) Natural fibrereinforced polymer composites and nanocomposites for automotive applications. In Cellulose fibers: bio-and nano-polymer composites. Springer, Berlin. (pp 661–700)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kalia S, Kaith B, Kaur I (2009) Pretreatments of natural fibers and their application as reinforcing material in polymer composites—a review. Polym Eng Sci 49(7):1253–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Cordeiro RC (2016) Plasma treatment of natural fibers to improve fiber-matrix compatibility. Universidade Federal Do Rio De JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fogorasi MS, Barbu I (2017) The potential of natural fibres for automotive sector-review. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering Vol.252, No. 1, pp. 012044 IOP PublishingGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dunne R, Desai D, Sadiku R, Jayaramudu J (2016) A review of natural fibres, their sustainability and automotive applications. J Reinf Plast Compos 35(13):1041–1050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Corbière-Nicollier T, Laban BG, Lundquist L, Leterrier Y, Månson JA, Jolliet O (2001) Life cycle assessment of biofibres replacing glass fibres as reinforcement in plastics. Resour Conserv Recycl 33(4):267–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gupta M, Srivastava R, Bisaria H (2015) Potential of jute fibre reinforced polymer composites: a review. International Journal of Fiber and Textile Research 5(3):30–38Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Li X, Tabil LG, Panigrahi S (2007) Chemical treatments of natural fiber for use in natural fiber-reinforced composites: a review. J Polym Environ 15(1):25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Bismarck A, Mishra S, Lampke T (2005) Plant fibers as reinforcement for green composites. Natural fibers, biopolymers and biocomposites 2:37–108Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Drzal LT, Misra M, Mohanty AK (eds) (2005) Natural fibers, biopolymers, and biocomposites. Taylor & FrancisGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Gassan J, Bledzki AK (2001) Thermal degradation of flax and jute fibers. J Appl Polym Sci 82(6):1417–1422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ku H, Wang H, Pattarachaiyakoop N, Trada M (2011) A review on the tensile properties of natural fiber reinforced polymer composites. Compos Part B 42(4):856–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Holbery J, Houston D (2006) Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composites in automotive applications. Jom 58(11):80–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Mohanty AK, Misra M, Drzal L (2002) Sustainable bio-composites from renewable resources: opportunities and challenges in the green materials world. J Polym Environ 10(1-2):19–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Arrakhiz FZ, El Achaby M, Malha M, Bensalah MO, Fassi-Fehri O, Bouhfid R, Benmoussa K, Qaiss A (2013) Mechanical and thermal properties of natural fibers reinforced polymer composites: doum/low density polyethylene. Mater Des 43:200–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Summerscales J, Dissanayake N, Virk A, Hall W (2010) A review of bast fibres and their composites. Part 2–composites. Compos A: Appl Sci Manuf 41(10):1336–1344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Bledzki AK, Sperber V, Faruk O (2002) Natural and wood fibre reinforcement in polymers (Vol. 13). iSmithers Rapra PublishingGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sanjay MR, Arpitha GR, Naik LL, Gopalakrishna K, Yogesha B (2016) Applications of natural fibers and its composites: an overview. Natural Resources 7(3):108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Akil H, Omar MF, Mazuki AAM, Safiee SZAM, Ishak ZM, Bakar AA (2011) Kenaf fiber reinforced composites: a review. Mater Des 32(8-9):4107–4121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jamrichova Z, Akova E (2013) Mechanical testing of natural fibre composites for automotive industry. Univ Rev 7(3):20–25Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Faruk O, Bledzki AK, Fink HP, Sain M (2014) Progress report on natural fiber reinforced composites. Macromol Mater Eng 299(1):9–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Belingardi G, Koricho EG, Martorana B (2014) Implementation of composite and recyclable thermoplastic materials for automotive bumper subsystem. International Journal of Automotive Composites 1(1):67–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cheon SS, Choi JH (1995) Development of the composite bumper beam for passenger cars. Compos Struct 32(1-4):491–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Clark CL, Bals CK, Layson MA (1991) Effects of Fiber and Property Orientation on “C” Shaped Cross Sections (No. 910049). SAE Technical PaperGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Kelman J, Nelson GV (1998) Davidson Textron Inc. U.S. Patent 5,804,511Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Achema F, YBS, Apeh ES, Akinyeke JO (2017) Application of glass fiber reinforced composite in the production of lightweight car bumper (a case study of the mechanical properties). International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology (IJERT) 6(7):575–579Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dakina SM (2012) Using of fiber composite of polypropylene to manufacturing cars bumpers. Academic Research International. 3(2):111Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wang T, Li Y (2015) Design and analysis of automotive carbon fiber composite bumper beam based on finite element analysis. Advances in Mechanical Engineering 7(6):1687814015589561Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hu Y, Liu C, Zhang J, Ding G, Wu Q (2015) Research on carbon fiber–reinforced plastic bumper beam subjected to low-velocity frontal impact. Advances in Mechanical Engineering 7(6):1687814015589458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hasanzadeh R, Azdast T, Eungkee Lee R, Afsari Ghazi A (2017) Experimental polymeric nanocomposite material selection for automotive bumper beam using multi-criteria decision making methods. Iran J Mater Sci Eng 14(3):1–10Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Witayakran S, Kongtud W, Boonyarit J, Smitthipong W, Chollakup R (2017) Development of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber reinforced epoxy composites for bumper beam in automobile. In Key Engineering Materials. Trans Tech Publications 751:779–784Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Onyedum O, Aduloju SC, Sheidu SO, Metu CS, Owolabi OB (2015) Comparative mechanical analysis of okra fiber and banana fiber composite used in manufacturing automotive car bumpers. American Journal of Engineering, Technology and Society 2(6):193–199Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ragupathi P, Sivaram NM, Vignesh G, Selvam MD (2018) Enhancement of impact strength of a car bumper using natural fiber composite made of jute. i-Manager's Journal on Mechanical Engineering 8(3):39Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Vemuri L (2016) Effect and analysis of natural fibre polymer composite plates used for passenger vehicle bumper. International Journal of Core Engineering & Management (IJCEM) 2(12):193–206Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dong C (2018) Review of natural fibre-reinforced hybrid composites. J Reinf Plast Compos 37(5):331–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sanjay M, Arpitha G, Yogesha B (2015) Study on mechanical properties of natural-glass fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites: a review. Materials today: proceedings 2(4-5):2959–2967Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Venkateshwaran N, ElayaPerumal A, Alavudeen A, Thiruchitrambalam M (2011) Mechanical and water absorption behaviour of banana/sisal reinforced hybrid composites. Mater Des 32(7):4017–4021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jawaid M, Khalil HA (2011) Cellulosic/synthetic fibre reinforced polymer hybrid composites: a review. Carbohydr Polym 86(1):1–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Rout J, Misra M, Tripathy SS, Nayak SK, Mohanty AK (2001) The influence of fibre treatment on the performance of coir-polyester composites. Compos Sci Technol 61(9):1303–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Khalil HA, Hanida S, Kang CW, Fuaad NN (2007) Agro-hybrid composite: the effects on mechanical and physical properties of oil palm fiber (EFB)/glass hybrid reinforced polyester composites. J Reinf Plast Compos 26(2):203–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Olorunnishola AAG, Adubi EG (2018) A comparative analysis of a blend of natural jute and glass fibers with synthetic glass fibers composites as car bumper materials. IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) 15(3):67–71Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mishra S, Mohanty AK, Drzal LT, Misra M, Parija S, Nayak SK, Tripathy SS (2003) Studies on mechanical performance of biofibre/glass reinforced polyester hybrid composites. Compos Sci Technol 63(10):1377–1385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Panthapulakkal S, Law S, Sain M (2006) Performance of injection molded natural fiber—hybrid thermoplastic composites for automotive structural applications. SAE Trans pp 27–32Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Davoodi MM, Sapuan SM, Ali AD, Khalina A (2010) Thermoplastic impact property improvement in hybrid natural fibre epoxy composite bumper beam. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. 012013). IOP PublishingGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Davoodi MM, Sapuan SM, Ahmad D, Aidy A, Khalina A, Jonoobi M (2012) Effect of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) on impact property improvement of hybrid kenaf/glass epoxy composite. Mater Lett 67(1):5–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jeyanthi S, Rani JJ (2014) Development of natural long fiber thermoplastic composites for automotive frontal beams. Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences 21(5):580–584Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Atiqah A, Maleque MA, Jawaid M, Iqbal M (2014) Development of kenaf-glass reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composite for structural applications. Compos Part B 56:68–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mechatronics and Industrial DesignTshwane University of TechnologyPretoriaSouth Africa
  2. 2.Institute of NanoEngineering Research (INER) and Department of Chemical Metallurgy and Materials EngineeringTshwane University of TechnologyPretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations