Advertisement

Parametric analysis of fabrication of through micro holes on titanium by maskless electrochemical micromachining

  • Sandip S. AnasaneEmail author
  • B. Bhattacharyya
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 36 Downloads

Abstract

Machining of micro features on titanium is a complex task due to its natural physical and chemical properties. Electrochemical micromachining (EMM) presents several advantages, such as minimum or no tool wear, stress-free machining with greater surface finish. This paper demonstrated successful fabrication of micro feature, i.e., through micro holes on pure commercial titanium with the help of maskless electrochemical micromachining process. Influence of various EMM process parameters, i.e., machining voltage, pulse frequency, duty ratio, and micro tool feed rate on machining accuracy in terms of radial overcut and conicity of micro hole as well as material removal rate (MRR), has been investigated to establish suitable process parameters for through micro hole generation. Surface quality of machined micro holes with respect to EMM process parameters was also investigated. Outcomes of this experimental investigation ensure fabrication of through micro holes with minimum overcut and taper angle. Machining voltage of 8 V, pulse frequency of 200 kHz, and micro tool feed rate of 0.6 μm/s with lower duty ratio are proved to be major influencing parameters. Surface roughness of 0.09 μm has been achieved with most suitable process parameters. In situ fabricated disk micro tool has been utilized to enhance machining accuracy. The study presented in this article can be a potential application for generation of various other micro features on pure commercial titanium which will find potential applications in microneedles, drug delivery systems, and features for various BioMEMS and engineering applications.

Keywords

Titanium Micromachining Micro hole Electrochemical micromachining Anodic dissolution Micro feature Micro tool 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    Ezugwu EO, Wang ZM (1997) Titanium alloys and their machinability-a review. J Mater Process Technol 68:262–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pramanik A, Littlefair G (2015) Machining of titanium alloy (Ti-6al-4v)—theory to application. Mach Sci Technol 19(1):1–49.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10910344.2014.991031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Yadav V, Jain VK, Dixit PM (2002) Thermal stresses due to electrical discharge machining. Int J Mach Tool Manu 42:877–888CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mower TM (2014) Degradation of titanium 6Al–4V fatigue strength due to electrical discharge machining. Int J Fatigue 64:84–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lin YC, Yan BH, Chang YS (2000) Machining characteristics of titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) using a combination process of EDM with USM. J Mater Process Technol 104:171–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kumar Jatinder KJS, Mohapatra SK (2008) An investigation into the machining characteristics of titanium using ultrasonic machining. Int J Mach Mach Mater 3(1):2Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bhattacharyya B, Malapati M, Munda J (2005) Experimental study on electrochemical micromachining. J Mater Process Technol 169:485–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dhobe SD, Doloi B, Bhattacharyya B (2011) Surface characteristics of ECMed titanium work samples for biomedical applications. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 55:177–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dyaminov RD, Mal'tsev AN, Kargin GV (September 1977) Electrochemical machining of titanium-rotor CastBlades for vortex pumps. Chem Pet Eng 13(9):817–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kern P, Vehand J, Michler J (2007) New developments in through-mask electrochemical micromachining of titanium. J Micromech Microeng 17:1168–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Piotrowski O, Madore C, Landolt D (1998) The mechanism of electropolishing of titanium in methanol-sulfuric acid electrolytes. J Electrochem Soc 145(7):2362–2369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jiang LM, Li W, Attia A, Cheng ZY, Tang J, Tian ZQ, Tian ZW (2008) A potential method for electrochemical micromachining of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V. J Appl Electrochem 38:785–791CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chauvy PF, Hoffmann P, Landolt D (2003) Electrochemical micromachining of titanium using laser oxide film lithography: excimer laser irradiation of anodic oxide. Appl Surf Sci 211:113–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aladjem A (1973) Anodic oxidation of titanium and its alloys, J.O. Mater Sci 8:688–704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Anasane SS, Bhattacharyya B (2016) Experimental investigation on suitability of electrolytes for electrochemical micromachining of titanium. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 86:2147–2160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cotton FA, Wilkinson G, Murillo CA, Bochmann M (1999) Advanced inorganic chemistry, 6th edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zinger O, Chauvy P-F, Landolt D (2003) Scale-resolved electrochemical surface structuring of titanium for biological applications. J Electrochem Soc 150~11:B495–B503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Landolt D, Chauvy P-F, Zinger O (2003) Electrochemical micromachining, polishing and surface structuring of metals: fundamental aspects and new developments. Electrochem Acta 48:3185–3201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bannard J (1976) On the electrochemical machining of some titanium alloys in bromide electrolytes. J Appl Electrochem 6:477–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Madore C, Landolt D (1997) Electrochemical micromachining of controlled topographies on titanium for biological applications. J Micromech Microeng 7:270–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sjöström T, Su B (2011) Micropatterning of titanium surfaces usingelectrochemical micromachining with an ethylene glycol electrolyte. Mater Lett 65:3489–3492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Vijaysing R, Doloi B, Bhattacharyya B (2013) Parametric Investigation Into the Fabrication of Disk Microelectrodes by Electrochemical Micromachining. J Micro Nano-Manuf 1:041005–1Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    De Silva AKM, Altena HSJ, McGeough JA (2000) Precision ECM by process characteristic modeling. Ann CIRP 49(1):151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chikamori K (1998) Possibilities of electrochemical micromachining, international journal of Japan society of. Precis Eng 32(1):37–38Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ghoshal B, Bhattacharyya B (2013) Influence of vibration on micro-tool fabrication by electrochemical machining. Int J Mach Tool Manu 64:49–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ghoshal B, Bhattacharyya B (2014) Shape control in micro borehole generatio n by EMM with the assistance of vibration of tool. Precis Eng 38(1):127–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bhattacharyya B (2015) Electrochemical micromachining for nanofabrication, MEMS and nanotechnology. William Andrew publications (imprint ofElsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rathod a V, Doloia B, Bhattacharyya B (2014) Sidewall insulation of microtool for electrochemical micromachining to enhance the machining accuracy, materials and manufacturing processes. Mater Manuf Process 29:305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hu M, Li Y, Yue Z, Jian W, Xiaogu Z (2012) Experimental study of micro electro-chemical milling with side insulated electrode. Appl Mech Mater 159:127–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Production Engineering and Industrial ManagementCollege of Engineering Pune (COEP)PuneIndia
  2. 2.Production Engineering DepartmentJadavpur UniversityKolkataIndia

Personalised recommendations