Numerical and experimental investigation on weld formation during laser+MIG hybrid fillet welding of aluminum alloy in horizontal position

  • Guoxiang XuEmail author
  • Zhiqiang Zheng
  • Qingnan Cao
  • Qingxian Hu
  • Lin Li
  • Qinghu Guo
  • Baoshuai Du


A three-dimensional transient model is proposed to investigate the weld formation during laser + metal inert gas (MIG) hybrid welding of aluminum alloy for horizontal fillet joint, which considers the coupling of keyhole, droplet, and liquid metal pool as well as the influence of joint geometry feature and welding position. An asymmetrical double-elliptic heat source is utilized to model the arc heat input and a conic heat source with increased peak heat density is used to describe the laser energy. The coordinate rotation is used to take into account the inclination of heat source and the related forces. According to the experimental and simulated results, weld formation mechanism of horizontal fillet joint is studied. At a lower laser power, the fluid flow pattern in hybrid welding is similar to that in MIG welding and a strong downward flow caused by both gravity and arc pressure occurs at the liquid metal zone of the vertical plate, leading to the accumulation of molten metal at the horizontal plate and the resultant weld asymmetry. At high laser power, a clockwise vortex appears above the keyhole. In this case, the sagging of liquid metal near weld pool surface due to effect of gravity is an important factor responsible for the asymmetry of fillet weld. Besides, with increasing laser power, the tendency of weld pool free surface sagging is enhanced to some extent and weld bead surface becomes concave.


Hybrid welding Horizontal fillet joint Weld formation Aluminum alloy Numerical simulation 


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Funding information

The authors are grateful to the financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.51575252) and Jiangsu Provincial Qing Lan Project.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guoxiang Xu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zhiqiang Zheng
    • 1
  • Qingnan Cao
    • 1
  • Qingxian Hu
    • 1
  • Lin Li
    • 1
  • Qinghu Guo
    • 1
  • Baoshuai Du
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Technology of Jiangsu ProvinceJiangsu University of Science and TechnologyZhenjiangPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Shandong Electric Power InstituteJinanPeople’s Republic of China

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