Investigation on forming–welding process chain for DC04 tube manufacturing using experiment and FEM simulation

  • Alexander Bauer
  • Yupiter H. P. ManurungEmail author
  • Joeran Sprungk
  • Marcel Graf
  • Birgit Awiszus
  • Keval Prajadhiana


A chained forming–welding process is to be investigated and analyzed using experimental verification and numerical simulation in which the material and mechanical properties are fully transferred between processes. The investigated part is in the form of a tube with dimension of 300 mm (l) × 20 mm (OD) × 1.5 mm (t) made of a low carbon steel material DC04 commonly used for automotive parts and support structure. At first, a series of experiment using industrial U-/O-bending machine and fully automated robotic gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process on longitudinal slot were sequentially conducted and analyzed towards final geometrical change, macrostructure, and residual stress. Further, numerical simulation method using specialized FEM software Simufact.Forming and Simufact.Welding is developed to predict the major properties following the actual process parameters during experimental forming and welding process. Throughout the simulation of forming and welding process, additive isotropic hardening plasticity model based on von Mises yield criterion is selected with a wide range of operating temperature and Goldak’s double-ellipsoid is defined as welding heat source model. Based on the analysis outcome, it can be concluded that coupled forming–welding process simulation can be suitably implemented to forecast major material and mechanical properties of tube manufacturing within accepted range of error under consideration of material history.


Forming simulation Welding simulation Coupled forming–welding Chained FEM simulation process U-/O-bending Robotic welding 


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The internationally collaborating authors would like to express their gratitude to Advanced Manufacturing Technology Excellence Centre (AMTEx) and Research Interest Group: Advanced Manufacturing Technology (RIG: AMT) at Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) in Malaysia as well as Professorship Virtual Production Engineering at Chemnitz University of Technology (CUT) in Germany for encouraging this research and providing the equipment. The simulation and advanced equipment are implemented at CUT.

Funding information

This research is financially supported by international research grant of DAAD (Ref. Nr.: 57347629) and Geran Inisiatif Penyeliaan (GIP) from Phase 1/2016 with Project Code: 600-IRMI/GIP 5/3 (0019/2016).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Professorship of Virtual Production EngineeringChemnitz University of TechnologyChemnitzGermany
  2. 2.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUiTM Shah AlamShah AlamMalaysia
  3. 3.University of Applied SciencesBochumGermany

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