An accelerated springback compensation method for creep age forming


Springback compensation is essential for tool design in creep age forming (CAF) process. In this study, a new accelerated springback compensation method integrating springback mechanism of a plate with creep-ageing behaviour of materials has been developed for CAF tool design to manufacture both singly and varyingly curved products. Springback compensation curves that relate the objective shapes and springback compensated shapes by their curvature, stress and strain states have been established, based on the numerical solution of springback behaviour of CAF process. For singly curved products, a one-step springback compensation method is proposed with reference to the springback compensation curves, and its effectiveness has been demonstrated by CAF test with a peak-aged aluminium alloy AA6082-T6. For products with varying curvatures, an accelerated method is developed for CAF tool design by integrating springback compensation curves with finite element (FE) assisted displacement adjustment techniques. The new accelerated method can significantly improve the tool design efficiency for CAF process when compared with conventional displacement adjustment techniques and has been verified by CAF manufacture of a varyingly curved product with AA6082-T6 material. The new accelerated springback compensation method developed in this study can be used for efficient tool design for CAF process of various products.


  1. 1.

    Zhan L, Lin J, Dean T (2011) A review of the development of creep age forming: experimentation, modelling and applications. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 51(1):1–17

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Ho K, Lin J, Dean T (2004) Modelling of springback in creep forming thick aluminum sheets. Int J Plast 20(4–5):733–751

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Morestin F, Boivin M, Silva C (1996) Elasto plastic formulation using a kinematic hardening model for springback analysis in sheet metal forming. J Mater Process Technol 56(1–4):619–630

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Kim HS, Koç M (2008) Numerical investigations on springback characteristics of aluminum sheet metal alloys in warm forming conditions. J Mater Process Technol 204(1–3):370–383

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Elsharkawy A, El-Domiaty A (2001) Determination of stretch-bendability limits and springback for T-section beams. J Mater Process Technol 110(3):265–276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Han C, Feng H, Yuan S (2017) Springback and compensation of bending for hydroforming of advanced high-strength steel welded tubes. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 89(9–12):3619–3629

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Wagoner RH, Lim H, Lee M-G (2013) Advanced issues in springback. Int J Plast 45:3–20

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Karafillis A, Boyce M (1992) Tooling design in sheet metal forming using springback calculations. Int J Mech Sci 34(2):113–131

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Karafillis AP, Boyce MC (1996) Tooling and binder design for sheet metal forming processes compensating springback error. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 36(4):503–526

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Wu L (1997) Tooling mesh generation technique for iterative FEM die surface design algorithm to compensate for springback in sheetmetal stamping. Eng Comput 14(6):630–648

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Anagnostou EL, Papazian JM (2004) Optimized tooling design algorithm for sheet metal forming over reconfigurable compliant tooling. AIP Conference Proceedings 712(1):741–748

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Gan W, Wagoner R (2004) Die design method for sheet springback. Int J Mech Sci 46(7):1097–1113

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Gan W, Wagoner R, Mao K, Price S, Rasouli F (2004) Practical methods for the design of sheet formed components. J Eng Mater Technol 126(4):360–367

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Lingbeek R, Gan W, Wagoner R, Meinders T, Weiher J (2008) Theoretical verification of the displacement adjustment and springforward algorithms for springback compensation. Int J Mater Form 1(3):159–168

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Cheng HS, Cao J, Xia ZC (2007) An accelerated springback compensation method. Int J Mech Sci 49(3):267–279

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Wang Z, Hu Q, Yan J, Chen J (2017) Springback prediction and compensation for the third generation of UHSS stamping based on a new kinematic hardening model and inertia relief approach. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90:875–885

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Yang XA, Ruan F (2011) A die design method for springback compensation based on displacement adjustment. Int J Mech Sci 53(5):399–406

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Meinders T, Burchitz IA, Bonte MH, Lingbeek R (2008) Numerical product design: springback prediction, compensation and optimization. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 48(5):499–514

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Li G, Liu Y, Du T, Tong H (2014) Algorithm research and system development on geometrical springback compensation system for advanced high-strength steel parts. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 70(1–4):413–427

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Yang Y, Zhan L, Shen R, Liu J, Li X, Huang M, He D, Chang Z, Ma Y, Wan L (2018) Investigation on the creep-age forming of an integrally-stiffened AA2219 alloy plate: experiment and modeling. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95(5–8):2015–2025

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Zhan L, Lin J, Dean TA, Huang M (2011) Experimental studies and constitutive modelling of the hardening of aluminium alloy 7055 under creep age forming conditions. Int J Mech Sci 53(8):595–605

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Li Y, Shi Z, Lin J, Yang Y-L, Saillard P, Said R (2018) FE simulation of asymmetric creep-ageing behaviour of AA2050 and its application to creep age forming. Int J Mech Sci 140:228–240

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Rong Q, Shi Z, Li X, Sun X, Li Y, Yang Y-L, Meng L, Lin J (2017) Experimental studies and constitutive modelling of AA6082 in stress-relaxation age forming conditions. Procedia Engineering 207:293–298

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Gan Z, Zhu JZ, Zhang L (2011) Research on springback compensation in age forming technology of integral panel. Adv Mater Res 304:90–95

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Xu X, Zhan L, Huang M (2013) Springback compensation algorithm for tool design in creep age forming of large aluminum alloy plate. AIP Conference Proceedings 1567(1):732–735

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Xiong W, Gan Z, Xiong S, Xia Y (2014) Rapid springback compensation for age forming based on quasi Newton method. Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering 27(3):551–557

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Gere J, Timoshenko S (1997) Mechanics of materials. PWS-KENT Publishing Company, Belmont

    Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    Chaboche J (2008) A review of some plasticity and viscoplasticity constitutive theories. Int J Plast 24(10):1642–1693

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Jeunechamps P-P, Ho K, Lin J, Ponthot J-P, Dean T (2006) A closed form technique to predict springback in creep age-forming. Int J Mech Sci 48(6):621–629

    Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Lam AC, Shi Z, Yang H, Wan L, Davies CM, Lin J, Zhou S (2015) Creep-age forming AA2219 plates with different stiffener designs and pre-form age conditions: experimental and finite element studies. J Mater Process Technol 219:155–163

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Li Y, Shi Z, Lin J, Yang Y-L, Rong Q, Huang B-M, Chung T-F, Tsao C-S, Yang J-R, Balint DS (2017) A unified constitutive model for asymmetric tension and compression creep-ageing behaviour of naturally aged Al-Cu-Li alloy. Int J Plast 89:130–149

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Lam AC, Shi Z, Lin J, Huang X, Zeng Y, Dean TA (2015) A method for designing lightweight and flexible creep-age forming tools using mechanical splines and sparse controlling points. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 80(1–4):361–372

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    Li Y, Shi Z, Yang Y-L, Lin J, Said R (2018) Experimental and numerical study of creep age forming of AA2050 plates with sparse multi-point flexible forming tool. Procedia Manufacturing, in press 15:1016–1023

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Lam AC (2015) A flexible tool design and integrated modelling techniques for springback compensation in creep-age forming. PhD thesis, Imperial College London

  35. 35.

    Ogden RW (1997) Non-linear elastic deformations. Courier Corporation, New York

    Google Scholar 

Download references


The research was performed at the CRRC Sifang-Imperial Centre for Rail Transportation Manufacturing Technologies at Imperial College London. The authors would like to thank Mr. Suresh Viswanathan for his technical help in carrying out CAF tests.


This work was supported by CRRC Qingdao Sifang Co., Ltd.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zhusheng Shi.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Li, Y., Rong, Q., Shi, Z. et al. An accelerated springback compensation method for creep age forming. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 102, 121–134 (2019).

Download citation


  • Creep age forming
  • Springback compensation
  • Displacement adjustment
  • Tool design
  • Stress-relaxation
  • AA6082-T6