Influence of diamond tool chamfer angle on surface integrity in ultra-precision turning of singe crystal silicon

  • Yigit KarpatEmail author


Ultra precision diamond machining enables the economical production of freeform optics on infrared materials such as silicon. To produce optics with acceptable surface integrity, it is important to have a good understanding of process-work material interaction between diamond tool and brittle and hard single crystal IR materials. Chamfered cutting edges are known to have high strength, which makes them suitable for machining difficult-to-cut materials. This study investigates the influence of chamfer angle on the surface integrity of silicon. Diamond tool chamfer angles of − 20°, − 30°, and − 45° are considered under practical diamond turning conditions of single crystal silicon. State-of-the-art techniques were used to investigate the surface integrity of the machined silicon surfaces. The results show that chamfer angle of 30° yields more favorable results compared to 20° and 45° under the conditions tested. The results indicate the complex interplay between tool geometry and process parameters in reaching an acceptable level of surface integrity. A machinability map indicating ductile and brittle machining conditions for 30° chamfered diamond tool has been presented which includes directly transferable knowledge to the precision machining industry.


Diamond machining Surface integrity Silicon Phase transformation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The author would like to thank the Ministry of Development of Turkey (HAMIT-Micro System Design and Manufacturing Research Centre).

Funding information

This work was financially supported by the Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) through project 115M699.


  1. 1.
    Fang FZ, Zhang XD, Weckenmann A, Zhang GX, Evans C (2013) Manufacturing and measurement of freeform optics. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 62:823–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fang FZ, Zhang XD, Gao W, Guo YB, Byrne G, Hansen HN (2017) Nanomanufacturing—perspective and applications. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 66:683–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Owen J, Davies M, Schmidt D, Urruti E (2015) On the ultra-precision diamond machining of chalcogenide glass. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 64:113–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Owen JD, Troutman JR, Harriman TA, Zare A, Wang YQ, Lucca DA, Davies MA (2016) The mechanics of milling of germanium for IR applications. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 65:109–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Mukaida M, Yan J (2017) Ductile machining of single-crystal silicon for microlens arrays by ultraprecision diamond turning using a slow tool servo. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 115:2–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tang X, Nakamoto K, Obata K, Takeuchi Y (2013) Ultraprecision micromachining of hard material with tool wear suppression by using diamond tool with special chamfer. CIRP Ann 62:51–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goel S, Luo X, Agrawal A, Reuben RL (2015) Diamond machining of silicon: a review of advances in molecular dynamics simulation. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 88:131–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Blake PN, Scattergood RO (1990) Ductile-regime machining of germ5anium and silicon. J Am Ceram Soc 73(4):949–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lucca DA, Chou P, Hocken RJ (1998) Effect of tool edge geometry on the nanometric cutting of Ge. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 47(1):475–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shibata T, Fujii S, Makino E, Ikeda M (1996) Ductile-regime turning mechanism of single crystal silicon. Precis Eng 18:129–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Leung TP, Lee WB, Lu XM (1998) Diamond turning of silicon substrates in ductile-regime. J Mater Process Technol 73(1–3):42–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yan J, Asami T, Harada H, Kuriyagawa T (2009) Fundamental investigation of subsurface damage in single crystalline silicon caused by diamond machining. Precis Eng 33:378–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yan J, Asami T, Harada H, Kuriyagawa T (2012) Crystallographic effect on subsurface damage formation in silicon microcutting. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 61:131–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang M, Wang W, Lu Z (2012) Anisotropy of machined surfaces involved in the ultra-precision turning of single-crystal silicon—a simulation and experimental study. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 60(5):473–485Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Patten JA, Gao W (2001) Extreme negative rake angle technique for single point diamond nano-cutting of silicon. Precis Eng 25(2):165–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Durazo-Cardenas I, Shore P, Luo X, Jacklin T, Impey SA, Cox A (2007) 3D characterisation of tool wear whilst diamond turning silicon. Wear 262(3–4):340–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fang FZ, Venkatesh VC (1998) Diamond cutting of silicon with Nanometric finish. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 47(1):45–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mir A, Luo X, Cheng K, Cox A (2017) Investigation of influence of tool rake angle in single point diamond turning of silicon. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94:2343–2355. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Characterisation of Areal Surface Texture Richard Leach Editor Springer, ISBN 978-3-642-36458-7Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yan J, Asami T, Kuriyagawa T (2008) Nondestructive measurement of machining-induced amorphous layers in single-crystal silicon by laser micro-Raman spectroscopy. Precis Eng 32:186–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Industrial EngineeringBilkent UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringBilkent UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center and Institute of Materials Science and NanotechnologyBilkent UniversityAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations