Advertisement

Comparison of methods to correlate input parameters with depth of penetration in LASER welding

  • Luiz Eduardo dos Santos PaesEmail author
  • Milton Pereira
  • Walter Lindolfo Weingaertner
  • Américo Scotti
  • Tiago Souza
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 60 Downloads

Abstract

Despite the industrial relevance of LASER welding, determination of sustainable parameterization is still a challenge. Trial and error, or even not totally justified methodologies, are frequently applied on LASER welding parametrization. This approach potentially leads to a decrease of the process tolerance and, consequently, increasing the likelihood of imperfections, which means extra operational time and raising of the final cost. The present paper addresses a comparative discussion about five factors experimentally determined and frequently used to predict depth of penetration in LASER welding. The experiments were performed with a 10-kW fiber LASER. In a first batch, power was varied while welding speed was fixed at 1 m/min. In a second batch, welding speed was varied and power was kept at 10 kW. The first demonstrated concern on using these popular factors is the definition and quantification of LASER energy. For evidencing this aspect, two samples were processed with the same welding energy of 120 kJ/m, yet resulting in completely different penetrations. Eventually, an empirical model based on power as a factor allowed a more reliable prediction of the depth of penetration.

Keywords

Autogenous LASER welding Conduction LASER welding Keyhole welding Heat input Power density Power factor 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank FINEP and BNDES for financing the LASER LABORATORY infrastructure and the Laboratory for Precision Engineering–LASER division (LMP-LASER) staff for the technical support.

Funding information

This work received financial support from CNPq.

References

  1. 1.
    Poprawe R (2011) Tailored Light 2. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-01237-2
  2. 2.
    Steen W M (2010) Laser material processing. Springer. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-84996-062-5
  3. 3.
    Fotovvati B, Wayne SF, Lewis G, Asadi E (2018) A review on melt-pool characteristics in laser welding of metals. Adv Mater Sci Eng 2018:1–18.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4920718 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Katz R, Zak A, Shirizly A (2018) Effect of laser welding parameters on weld bead geometry. Res J Appl Sci Eng Technol 15:118–123.  https://doi.org/10.19026/rjaset.15.5836 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Grajcar et al. (2014) Effect of heat input on microstructure and hardness profile of welded Si-Al trip-type steel. Adv Mater Sci Eng 1–8. doi:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/658947
  6. 6.
    Alcock JA, Baufeld B (2017) Diode laser welding of stainless steel 304L. J Mater Process Technol 240:138–144.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2016.09.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tan W, Shin YC (2015) Laser keyhole welding of stainless steel thin plate stack for applications in fuel cell manufacturing. Sci Technol Weld Join 20:313–318.  https://doi.org/10.1179/1362171815Y.0000000005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Quintino L, Costa A, Miranda R, Yapp D, Kumar V, Kong CJ (2007) Welding with high power fiber lasers - a preliminary study. Mater Des 28:1231–1237.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2006.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    El-Batahgy A-M (1997) Effect of laser welding parameters on fusion zone shape and solidification structure of austenitic stainless steels. Mater Lett 32:155–163.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-577X(97)00023-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mannik L, Brown SK (1990) A relationship between laser power, penetration depth and welding speed in the laser welding of steels. J Laser Appl 2:22–25.  https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4745264 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cao X, Kabir ASH, Wanjara P, Gholipour J, Birur A, Cuddy J, Medraj M (2014) Global and local mechanical properties of autogenously laser welded Ti-6Al-4V. Metall Mater Trans A 45:1258–1272.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11661-013-2106-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hipp D, Mahrle A, Jäckel S, Beyer E, Leyens C, Füssel U (2018) Method for high accuracy measurements of energy coupling and melting efficiency under welding conditions. J Laser Appl 30:1–10.  https://doi.org/10.2351/1.5040615 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Quintino L, Liskevich O, Vilarinho L, Scotti A (2013) Heat input in full penetration welds in gas metal arc welding (GMAW). Int J Adv Manuf Technol 68:2833–2840.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-013-4862-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liskevych O, Quintino L, Vilarinho LO, Scotti A (2013) Intrinsic errors on cryogenic calorimetry applied to arc welding. Weld World 57:349–357.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40194-013-0035-5 Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hurtig K, Choquet I, Scotti A, Svensson LE (2016) A critical analysis of weld heat input measurement through a water-cooled stationary anode calorimeter. Sci Technol Weld Join 21:339–350.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13621718.2015.1112945 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Liskevych O, Scotti A (2015) Determination of the gross heat input in arc welding. J Mater Process Technol 225:139–150.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2015.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    dos Santos Magalhães E, de Carvalho SR, de Lima E Silva ALF, Lima E Silva SMM (2015) The use of non-linear inverse problem and enthalpy method in GTAW process of aluminum. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 66:114–121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.icheatmasstransfer.2015.05.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Scotti A, Rodrigues CEAL (2009) Determination of the momentum of droplets impinging on the pool during aluminium GMAW. Soldag Inspeção 14:336–343.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-92242009000400008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Suder WJ, Williams SW (2012) Investigation of the effects of basic laser material interaction parameters in laser welding. J Laser Appl 24:32009-1–32009-10.  https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4728136 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Suder WJ, Williams S (2014) Power factor model for selection of welding parameters in CW laser welding. Opt Laser Technol 56:223–229.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2013.08.016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ayoola WA, Suder WJ, Williams SW (2017) Parameters controlling weld bead profile in conduction laser welding. J Mater Process Technol 249:522–530.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2017.06.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Chelladurai AM, Gopal KA, Murugan S, Albert SK, Venugopal S, Jayakumar T (2015) Effect of energy transfer modes on solidification cracking in pulsed laser welding. Sci Technol Weld Join 20:578–584.  https://doi.org/10.1179/1362171815Y.0000000041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Marya M, Edwards GR (2001) Factors controlling the magnesium weld morphology in deep penetration welding by a CO2 laser. J Mater Eng Perform 10:435–443.  https://doi.org/10.1361/105994901770344854 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lankalapalli KN, Tu JF, Gartner M (1996) A model for estimating penetration depth of laser welding processes. J Phys D Appl Phys 29:1831–1841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hu B, Richardson IM (2005) Autogenous laser keyhole welding of aluminum alloy 2024. J Laser Appl 17:70–80.  https://doi.org/10.2351/1.1896964 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhao Y, Zhu K, Ma Q, Shang Q, Huang J, Yang D (2016) Plasma behavior and control with small diameter assisting gas nozzle during CO2 laser welding. J Mater Process Technol 237:208–215.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2016.06.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    He X, Norris JT, Fuerschbach PW, Debroy T (2006) Liquid metal expulsion during laser spot welding of 304 stainless steel. J Phys D Appl Phys 39:525–534.  https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/39/3/016 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Albright CE, Chiang S (1988) High-speed laser welding discontinuities. J Laser Appl 1:18–24.  https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4745217 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Volpp J (2017) Keyhole stability during laser welding part II: process pores and spatters. Prod Eng 11:9–18.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11740-016-0705-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kou S (2003) Welding metallurgy. Wiley-Inerscience 822:57–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.theochem.2007.07.017 Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Matsunawa A (2001) Problems and solutions in deep penetration laser welding. Sci Technol Weld Join 6:351–354.  https://doi.org/10.1179/stw.2001.6.6.351 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rosenthal D (1941) Mathematical theory of heat distribution during welding and cutting. Weld J 20:220–234Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory of Precision Engineering, Laser Division (LMP-Laser)Federal University of Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  2. 2.Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes (Laprosolda)Federal University of UberlandiaUberlândiaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Engineering Science, Production Technology West, Division of Welding TechnologyUniversity WestTrollhättanSweden

Personalised recommendations