Process robustness and strength analysis of multi-layered dissimilar joints using ultrasonic metal welding

  • Abhishek DasEmail author
  • Iain Masters
  • David Williams
Open Access


This paper investigates the effects of process parameters on the joint strength and process robustness when multi-layered joints of dissimilar metals are produced by ultrasonic metal welding (UMW). Three layers of 0.3-mm aluminium sheet are welded with a single 1.0-mm copper sheet which is representative of electric vehicle battery interconnects. A process robustness study in which welding pressure, amplitude of vibration and welding time are varied to produce satisfactory welds is reported. The weld quality is evaluated by performing lap shear and T-peel tests where maximum loads are considered as the quality indicator. Response surfaces are developed to identify the relationship and sensitivity between the input process parameters and output quality indicators. A feasible weldability zone is defined for the first time by identifying the under-weld, good-weld and over-weld conditions based on load-displacement curves and corresponding failure modes. Relying on the weldability zone and response surfaces, multi-objective optimisation is performed to obtain maximum lap shear and T-peel strength which resulted in Pareto frontier or trade-off curve between both objectives. An optimal joint is selected from the Pareto front which is verified and validated by performing confirmation experiments, and further, used for T-peel strength analysis of different interfaces of the multi-layered joint. To conclude, this paper determines both the optimal weld parameters and the robust operating range.


Ultrasonic metal welding Automotive battery interconnects Joint strength Process robustness Response surface methodology Feasible weldability zone 



This research is partially supported by the WMG Centre High Value Manufacturing (HVM) Catapult at The University of Warwick.


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Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.WMGThe University of WarwickCoventryUK

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