Advertisement

Evaluation of drilling performances of nanocomposites reinforced with graphene and graphene oxide

  • Yahya Hışman ÇelikEmail author
  • Erol Kilickap
  • Nihayet Koçyiğit
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 44 Downloads

Abstract

The use of graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) reinforced nanocomposites have a great importance since G and GO improve the interface conditions of composite materials. However, the effects of G and GO on some mechanical properties and machinability in nanocomposites are still a research topic. In this study, G was converted to GO by Hummers’ method. G and GO nanoparticles were added to epoxy at different ratios and the tensile strengths of nanocomposites were determined. By taking into account, the reinforcement ratio of nanocomposites having the highest tensile strength, epoxy with G and GO, and unreinforced epoxy were added to carbon fiber (CF) fabric by hand lay-up. Thus, fabrication of the carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite, and the G/CFRP and GO/CFRP nanocomposites was carried out. The effects of the G and GO on the fabricated nanocomposites, and the effect of different drilling parameters (cutting speed and feed rate) on the cutting force, cutting torque, temperature, and delamination factor were investigated. In the drilling of these composites, drills with the different bit point angles and the diameter of 5 mm were used. As a result, it was observed that GO was successfully synthesized, and G and GO positively affected the tensile strength, and GO exhibited a more effective feature than G on the tensile strength. It was also seen that the increase of the cutting speed, feed rate, bit point angle caused the increase in the cutting forces, cutting torque, and delaminations.

Keywords

Graphene Graphene oxide Nanocomposites Drilling 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Mittal G, Dhand V, Rhee KY, Park SJ, Lee WR (2015) A review on carbon nanotubes and graphene as fillers in reinforced polymer nanocomposites. J Ind Eng Chem 21:11–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liu D, Bian Q, Li Y, Wang Y, Xiang A, Tian H (2016) Effect of oxidation degrees of graphene oxide on the structure and properties of poly (vinyl alcohol) composite films. Compos Sci Technol 129:146–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kuila T, Bose S, Khanra P, Kim NH, Rhee KY, Lee JH (2011) Characterization and properties of in situ emulsion polymerized poly(methyl methacrylate)/graphene nanocomposites. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 42:1856–1861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kim H, Kobayashi S, Abdurrahim MA, Zhang MJ, Khusainova A, Hillmyer AA (2011) Graphene/polyethylene nanocomposites: effect of polyethylene functionalization and blending methods. Polymer (Guildf) 52:1837–1846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kassaee MZ, Motamedi E, Majdi M (2011) Magnetic Fe3O4-graphene oxide/polystyrene: fabrication and characterization of a promising nanocomposite. Chem Eng J 172:540–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen Y, Qi Y, Tai Z, Yan X, Zhu F, Xue Q (2012) Preparation, mechanical properties and biocompatibility of graphene oxide/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composites. Eur Polym J 48:1026–1033CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shiu SC, Tsai JL (2014) Characterizing thermal and mechanical properties of graphene/epoxy nanocomposites. Compos Part B 56:691–697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zhang Y, Rhee KY, Park S-J (2017) Nanodiamond nanocluster-decorated graphene oxide/epoxy nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical behavior and thermal stability. Compos Part B 114:111–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kashyap S, Pratihar SK, Behera SK (2016) Strong and ductile graphene oxide reinforced PVA nanocomposites. J Alloys Compd 684:254–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yazıcı M, Tiyek İ, Ersoy MS, Alma MH, Yildirim B, Salan T, Karataş Ş, Uruş S, Karter İ, Yildiz K (2016) Modifiye HummersYöntemi̇yle Grafen Oksi̇t (GO) Sentezi̇ ve Karakteri̇zasyonu. GU J Sci Part C 4:41–48Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kausar A, Rafique I, Anwar Z, Muhammad B (2016) Perspectives of epoxy/graphene oxide composite: significant features and technical applications. Polym - Plast Technol Eng 55:704–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Araby S, Meng Q, Zhang L, Kang H, Majewski P, Tang Y, Ma J (2014) Electrically and thermally conductive elastomer/graphene nanocomposites by solution mixing. Polymer (United Kingdom) 55:201–210Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Galpaya D, Wang M, George G, Motta N, Waclawik E, Yan C (2014) Preparation of graphene oxide/epoxy nanocomposites with significantly improved mechanical properties. J Appl Phys 116(053518):1–10Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Singh V, Joung D, Zhai L, Das S, Khondaker SI, Seal S (2011) Graphene based materials: past, present and future. Prog Mater Sci 56:1178–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Vallés C, Kinloch IA, Young RJ, Wilson NR, Rourke JP (2013) Graphene oxide and base-washed graphene oxide as reinforcements in PMMA nanocomposites. Compos Sci Technol 88:158–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bian J, Wei XW, Lin HL, Gong SJ, Zhang H, Guan ZP (2011) Preparation and characterization of modified graphite oxide/poly(propylene carbonate) composites by solution intercalation. Polym Degrad Stab 96:1833–1840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Deshmukh K, Khatake SM, Joshi GM (2013) Surface properties of graphene oxide reinforced polyvinyl chloride nanocomposites. J Polym Res 20:286.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10965-013-0286-2. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Jiang T, Kuila T, Kim NH, Ku BC, Lee JH (2013) Enhanced mechanical properties of silanized silica nanoparticle attached graphene oxide/epoxy composites. Compos Sci Technol 79:115–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Shah R, Kausar A, Muhammad B, Shah S (2015) Progression from graphene and graphene oxide to high performance polymer-based nanocomposite: a review. Polym Plast Technol Eng 54:173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Deshmukh K, Joshi GM (2014) Thermo-mechanical properties of poly (vinyl chloride)/graphene oxide as high performance nanocomposites. Polym Test 34:211–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kuilla T, Bhadra S, Yao D, Kim NH, Bose S, Lee JH (2010) Recent advances in graphene based polymer composites. Prog Polym Sci 35:1350–1375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Li Y, Pan D, Chen S, Wang Q, Pan G, Wang T (2013) In situ polymerization and mechanical, thermal properties of polyurethane/graphene oxide/epoxy nanocomposites. Mater Des 47:850–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Li Z, Wang R, Young RJ, Lee D, Yang F, Hao L, Jio W, Liu W (2013) Control of the functionality of graphene oxide for its application in epoxy nanocomposites. Polymer (United Kingdom) 54:6437–6446Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kang WS, Rhee KY, Park SJ (2017) Influence of surface energetics of graphene oxide on fracture toughness of epoxy nanocomposites. Compos Part B 114:175–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Xiao J, Gao C, Ke Y (2018) An analytical approach to cutting force prediction in milling of carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates. Mach Sci Technol:1–17.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10910344.2018.1449214
  26. 26.
    Xu WX, Zhang LC, Wu YB (2016) Effect of tool vibration on chip formation and cutting forces in themachining of fiber-reinforced polymer composites. Mach Sci Technol 20:312–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jiang J, Yao X, Xu C, Su Y, Zhou L, Deng C (2017) Influence of electrochemical oxidation of carbon fiber on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber/graphene oxide/epoxy composites. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 95:248–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wang C, Li J, Yu J, Sun S, Li X, Xie F, Jiang B, Wu G, Yu F, Huang Y (2017) Grafting of size-controlled graphene oxide sheets onto carbon fiber for reinforcement of carbon fiber/epoxy composite interfacial strength. Compos A Appl Sci Manuf 101:511–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Suñer S, Joffe R, Tipper JL, Emami N (2015) Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene/graphene oxide nanocomposites: thermal, mechanical and wettability characterisation. Compos Part B 78:185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bian J, Lin HL, He FX, Wang L, Wei XW, Chang IT, Sancaktar E (2013) Processing and assessment of high-performance poly(butylene terephthalate) nanocomposites reinforced with microwave exfoliated graphite oxide nanosheets. Eur Polym J 49:1406–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mahmoud WE (2011) Morphology and physical properties of poly(ethylene oxide) loaded graphene nanocomposites prepared by two different techniques. Eur Polym J 47:1534–1540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cano M, Khan U, Sainsbury T, O’Neil A, Wang Z, McGovern IT, Mase WK, Benito AM, Coleman JN (2013) Improving the mechanical properties of graphene oxide based materials by covalent attachment of polymer chains. Carbon 52:363–371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pan B, Zhang S, Li W, Zhao J, Liu J, Zhang Y, Zhang Y (2012) Tribological and mechanical investigation of MC nylon reinforced by modified graphene oxide. Wear 294–295:395–401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sridharan V, Raja T, Muthukrishnan N (2016) Study of the effect of matrix, fibre treatment and graphene on delamination by drilling jute/epoxy nanohybrid composite. Arab J Sci Eng 41:1883–1894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Abrão AM, Faria PE, Campos Rubio JC, Reis P, Davim JP (2007) Drilling of fiber reinforced plastics: a review. J Mater Process Technol 186:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gaitonde VN, Karnik SR, Campos Rubio J, Esteves Correia A, Abrão AM, Paulo Davim J (2008) Analysis of parametric influence on delamination in high-speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic composites. J Mater Process Technol 203:431–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Paulo Davim J, Campos Rubio J, Abrao AM (2007) A novel approach based on digital image analysis to evaluate the delamination factor after drilling composite laminates. Compos Sci Technol 67:1939–1945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wang H, Sun J, Li J, Li W (2014) Investigation on delamination morphology during drilling composite laminates. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 74:257–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Liu L, Qi C, Wu F, Zhang X, Zhu X (2018) Analysis of thrust force and delamination in drilling GFRP composites with candle stick drills. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95:2585–2600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Abhishek K, Datta S, Mahapatra SS (2015) Optimization of thrust, torque, entry, and exist delamination factor during drilling of CFRP composites. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 76:401–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Abrão AM, Campos Rubio JC, Faria PE, Davim JP (2008) The effect of cutting tool geometry on thrust force and delamination when drilling glass fibre reinforced plastic composite. Mater Des 29:508–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tsao CC (2008) Thrust force and delamination of core-saw drill during drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). Int J Adv Manuf Technol 37:23–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pathak AK, Borah M, Gupta A, Yokozeki T (2016) Improved mechanical properties of carbon fiber/graphene oxide epoxy hybrid composites. Compos Sci Technol 135:28–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Feito N, Díaz-Álvarez J, López-Puente J, Miguelez MH (2018) Experimental and numerical analysis of step drill bit performance when drilling woven CFRPs. Compos Struct 184:1147–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Compos Rubio J, Abrao AM, Faria PE, Esteves Correia A, Paulo Davim J (2008) Effects of high speed in the drilling of glass fibre reinforced plastic: Evaluation of the delamination factor. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 48:715–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yahya Hışman Çelik
    • 1
    Email author
  • Erol Kilickap
    • 2
  • Nihayet Koçyiğit
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering-ArchitectureBatman UniversityBatmanTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringDicle UniversityDiyarbakirTurkey
  3. 3.Department of ChemistryBatman UniversityBatmanTurkey

Personalised recommendations