Advertisement

A novelty optimization approach for drilling of CFRP nanocomposite laminates

  • Halil Burak Kaybal
  • Ali ÜnüvarEmail author
  • Murat Koyunbakan
  • Ahmet Avcı
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 44 Downloads

Abstract

Numerous problems are encountered in drilling of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials (CFRP) such as delamination, tool wear etc. Delamination has been recognized as a major damage encountered when drilling composite laminates. In the present study, machinability and the effects of cutting speed and feed rate upon thrust force and delamination formation in carbon nano tube (CNT)-added carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) and CFRP were investigated. With this purpose, the experiments were planned. The response surface analysis has been carried out to study the main and the interaction effects of the machining parameters. By using the Taguchi method, cutting parameters’ degrees of influence were determined. A new multi-objective optimization for the appropriate drilling process of these composite materials was proposed and an analytical optimization technique was applied. Appropriate cutting parameters of thrust force and delamination factor were found and the optimization results showed that the combination of low feed rate with high cutting speed is necessary to minimize delamination in drilling of CFRP.The machinability refers to the relative ease or difficulty under certain cutting conditions. So, it is very important to understand the factors that affect the machinability and to evaluate their effects. Machinability of Epoxy/CF and CNT-Epoxy/CF was investigated. It was aimed to evaluate the machinability of these materials. A new machinability index has been developed in current study. It was found out that machinability of Epoxy/CF is better than CNT-Epoxy/CF.

Keywords

CFRP Nanocomposite RSM Taguchi methods Drilling Thrust force Optimization Machinability 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge Selcuk University Manufacturing System Automation and Computer Aid Design and Production Research and Application Center and BAP Office with the Turkish Scientific Research Institution for the support and contribution.

References

  1. 1.
    Wang XM, Zhang LC (2003) An experimental investigation into the orthogonal cutting of unidirectional fibre reinforced plastics. Int J Mach Tool Manu 43(10):1015–1022.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0890-6955(03)00090-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Murthy B, Rodrigues L, Devineni A (2012) Process parameters optimization in gfrp drilling through integration of taguchi and response surface methodology. Res J Recent Sci. ISSN 2277:2502Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Davim JP, Reis P (2003) Drilling carbon fiber reinforced plastics manufactured by autoclave - experimental and statistical study. Mater Des 24(5):315–324.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-3069(03)00062-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Harris M, Qureshi MAM, Saleem MQ, Khan SA, Bhutta MMA (2017) Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite drilling via aluminum chromium nitride-coated tools: hole quality and tool wear assessment. J Reinf Plast Compos 36(19):1403–1420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rahman M, Ramakrishna S, Prakash J, Tan D (1999) Machinability study of carbon fiber reinforced composite. J Mater Process Technol 89:292–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fang S, Llanes L, Bähre D, Mücklich F (2017) 3D characterization of cubic boron nitride (CBN) composites used as tool material for high precision abrasive machining processes. Ceram Int 43(17):14693–14700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Phadnis VA, Makhdum F, Roy A, Silberschmidt VV (2013) Drilling in carbon/epoxy composites: experimental investigations and finite element implementation. Compos A: Appl Sci Manuf 47:41–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lin S, Chen I (1996) Drilling carbon fiber-reinforced composite material at high speed. Wear 194(1–2):156–162Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Piquet R, Ferret B, Lachaud F, Swider P (2000) Experimental analysis of drilling damage in thin carbon/epoxy plate using special drills. Compos A: Appl Sci Manuf 31(10):1107–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gaitonde V, Karnik S, Rubio JC, Correia AE, Abrao A, Davim JP (2008) Analysis of parametric influence on delamination in high-speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic composites. J Mater Process Technol 203(1–3):431–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ameur M, Habak M, Kenane M, Aouici H, Cheikh M (2017) Machinability analysis of dry drilling of carbon/epoxy composites: cases of exit delamination and cylindricity error. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88(9–12):2557–2571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Karnik S, Gaitonde V, Rubio JC, Correia AE, Abrão A, Davim JP (2008) Delamination analysis in high speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) using artificial neural network model. Mater Des 29(9):1768–1776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Grilo T, Paulo R, Silva C, Davim J (2013) Experimental delamination analyses of CFRPs using different drill geometries. Compos Part B 45(1):1344–1350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu D, Tang Y, Cong W (2012) A review of mechanical drilling for composite laminates. Compos Struct 94(4):1265–1279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Çelik A, Lazoglu I, Kara A, Kara F (2015) Wear on SiAlON ceramic tools in drilling of aerospace grade CFRP composites. Wear 338:11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kuo C, Soo S, Aspinwall D, Carr C, Bradley S, M’Saoubi R, Leahy W (2018) Development of single step drilling technology for multilayer metallic-composite stacks using uncoated and PVD coated carbide tools. J Manuf Process 31:286–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Amaitik S, Taşgin T, Kilic S (2006) Tool-life modelling of carbide and ceramic cutting tools using multi-linear regression analysis. Proc Inst Mech Eng B J Eng Manuf 220(2):129–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen W-C (1997) Some experimental investigations in the drilling of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite laminates. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 37(8):1097–1108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Won M, Dharan C (2002) Drilling of aramid and carbon fiber polymer composites. J Manuf Sci Eng 124(4):778–783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Khashaba U (2004) Delamination in drilling GFR-thermoset composites. Compos Struct 63(3):313–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sorrentino L, Turchetta S, Bellini C (2018) A new method to reduce delaminations during drilling of FRP laminates by feed rate control. Compos Struct 186:154–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hocheng H, Tsao C (2003) Comprehensive analysis of delamination in drilling of composite materials with various drill bits. J Mater Process Technol 140(1):335–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wong T, Wu S, Croy G (1982) An analysis of delamination in drilling composite materials. In: 14th national SAMPE technical conference, pp 1–483Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tsao C (2008) Prediction of thrust force of step drill in drilling composite material by Taguchi method and radial basis function network. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 36(1–2):11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Phadke MS (1995) Quality engineering using robust design. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tsao C (2012) Evaluation of the drilling-induced delamination of compound core-special drills using response surface methodology based on the Taguchi method. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 62(1–4):241–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Myers R, Montgomery D (1995) Response surface methodology: process and product optimization using designed experiments. John Wiley & Sons, INC., NewyorkGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Su F, Wang Z, Yuan J, Cheng Y (2015) Study of thrust forces and delamination in drilling carbon-reinforced plastics (CFRPs) using a tapered drill-reamer. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 80(5–8):1457–1469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Palanikumar K (2011) Experimental investigation and optimisation in drilling of GFRP composites. Measurement 44(10):2138–2148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Abhishek K, Datta S, Mahapatra SS (2015) Optimization of thrust, torque, entry, and exist delamination factor during drilling of CFRP composites. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 76(1–4):401–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Krishnaraj V, Prabukarthi A, Ramanathan A, Elanghovan N, Kumar MS, Zitoune R, Davim J (2012) Optimization of machining parameters at high speed drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates. Compos Part B 43(4):1791–1799CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rajmohan T, Palanikumar K (2013) Application of the central composite design in optimization of machining parameters in drilling hybrid metal matrix composites. Measurement 46(4):1470–1481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sardinas RQ, Reis P, Davim JP (2006) Multi-objective optimization of cutting parameters for drilling laminate composite materials by using genetic algorithms. Compos Sci Technol 66(15):3083–3088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Davim J, Mata F (2006) Physical cutting model of polyetheretherketone composites. Mater Des 27(10):847–852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Abrão AM, Faria PE, Rubio JC, Reis P, Davim JP (2007) Drilling of fiber reinforced plastics: a review. J Mater Process Technol 186(1–3):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Abrao A, Rubio JC, Faria P, Davim J (2008) The effect of cutting tool geometry on thrust force and delamination when drilling glass fibre reinforced plastic composite. Mater Des 29(2):508–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Davim JP, Rubio JC, Abrao A (2007) A novel approach based on digital image analysis to evaluate the delamination factor after drilling composite laminates. Compos Sci Technol 67(9):1939–1945CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rubio JC, Abrao A, Faria P, Correia AE, Davim JP (2008) Effects of high speed in the drilling of glass fibre reinforced plastic: evaluation of the delamination factor. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 48(6):715–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Davim JP, Mata F, Gaitonde V, Karnik S (2010) Machinability evaluation in unreinforced and reinforced PEEK composites using response surface models. J Thermoplast Compos Mater 23(1):5–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Davim JP, Reis P (2004) Machinability study on composite (polyetheretherketone reinforced with 30% glass fibre–PEEK GF 30) using polycrystalline diamond (PCD) and cemented carbide (K20) tools. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 23(5–6):412–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Davim JP, Reis P, Vt L, António CC (2003) Machinability study on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) unreinforced and reinforced (GF30) for applications in structural components. Compos Struct 62(1):67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chambers A, Bishop G (1995) The drilling of carbon fiber polymer matrix composites. In: Tenth International Conference on Composite Materials. III. Processing and Manufacturing, pp 565–572Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Babu J, Basavarajappa S, Blass D, Blümel S, Chatelain J-F, Cong W, Díaz-Álvarez J, Dilger K, Feito N, Fischer F (2015) Machinability of fibre-reinforced plastics, vol 4. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG, BerlinGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Halil Burak Kaybal
    • 1
  • Ali Ünüvar
    • 2
    Email author
  • Murat Koyunbakan
    • 3
  • Ahmet Avcı
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringAmasya UniversityAmasyaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringSelcuk UniversityKonyaTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Manufacturing EngineeringDumlupinar UniversityKütahyaTurkey

Personalised recommendations