Advertisement

Optical probing for CNC machining of large parts made from fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials

  • Drago BračunEmail author
  • Luka Selak
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 34 Downloads

Abstract

In machining of large fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite parts, the part must be precisely located before machining. The exact location and shape are usually determined by the probing systems employing a touch probe integrated with a CNC machine. When measuring a large number of points, touch probing consumes a significant amount of time and adversely affects the utilization of the CNC machine in serial production. In order to increase the probing speed and acquire additional details, a new optical probing operating on the laser triangulation measuring principle is developed. The paper describes the measuring principle, system integration, neural network as the measuring system transfer function, and the calibration process. When measuring polyester or epoxy resin-based materials, the laser light penetrates into the part and reflects back inside of the part. This interference is successfully neutralized by the calibration body made from the same FRP material as the measured part. Verification of the calibration body and the machine coordinate system alignment is demonstrated by comparison of corrections determined with the optical and touch probing.

Keywords

Localization Probing FRP CNC Laser triangulation Neural network Correction 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology of the Republic of Slovenia, research program P2-0270 and L2-8183. The authors would also like to thank to the company Elan d.o.o. for their assistance and support in this research work.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Hollaway LC (2013) Advanced fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials for sustainable energy technologies, no. January 2012. Woodhead Publishing LimitedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bagherpour S (2012) Fibre reinforced polyester composites (composition perfect). Intech:135–166Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Saadat M, Sim R, Najafi F (2007) Prediction of geometrical variations in airbus wingbox assembly. Assem Autom 27(4):324–332Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Saadat M, Cretin C (2002) Dimensional variations during airbus wing assembly. Assem Autom 22(3):270–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chowdhury N, Wang J, Chiu WK, Yan W (2016) Residual stresses introduced to composite structures due to the cure regime: effect of environment temperature and moisture. J Compos 2016:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6468032
  6. 6.
    Lin SP, Shen JH, Han JL, Lee YJ, Liao KH, Yeh JT, Chang FC, Hsieh KH (2008) Volume shrinkages and mechanical properties of various fiber-reinforced hydroxyethyl methacrylate-polyurethane/unsaturated polyester composites. Compos Sci Technol 68(3–4):709–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Svanberg JM, Altkvist C, Nyman T (2005) Prediction of shape distortions for a curved composite C-spar. J Reinf Plast Compos 24(3):323–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bogetti TA, Gillespie JW (1992) Process-induced stress and deformation in thick-section thermoset composite laminates. J Compos Mater 26(5):626–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bhat V, De Meter EC (2000) Analysis of the effect of datum-establishment methods on the geometric errors of machined features. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 40(13):1951–1975CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhu L, Luo H, Ding H (2009) Optimal design of measurement point layout for workpiece localization. J Manuf Sci Eng 131(1):11006–11013Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Weckenmann A, Estler T, Peggs G, McMurtry D (2004) Probing systems in dimensional metrology. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 53(2):657–684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Schmitt RH, Peterek M, Morse E, Knapp W, Galetto M, Härtig F, Goch G, Hughes B, Forbes A, Estler WT (2016) Advances in large-scale metrology – review and future trends. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 65(2):643–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Heidenhain, “Touch probes for machine tools,” (2017) [Online]. Available: https://www.heidenhain.com/en_US/products/touch-probes/. Accessed 13 Dec 2017
  14. 14.
    Renishaw, “Probing systems and software,” (2017) [Online]. Available: http://www.renishaw.com/en/probing-systems-and-software%2D%2D12466. Accessed 13 Dec 2017
  15. 15.
    Mutilba U, Gomez-Acedo E, Kortaberria G, Olarra A, and Yagüe-Fabra JA (2017) “Traceability of on-machine tool measurement: a review” Sensors (Switzerland), vol. 17, no. 7Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Spitz SN, Spyridi AJ, Requicha AAG (1999) Accessibility analysis for planning of dimensional inspection with coordinate measuring machines. IEEE Trans Robot Autom 15(4):714–727CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Schwenke H, Neuschaefer-Rube U, Pfeifer T, Kunzmann H (2002) Optical methods for dimensional metrology in production engineering. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 51(2):685–699Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Gao W, Kim SW, Bosse H, Haitjema H, Chen YL, Lu XD, Knapp W, Weckenmann A, Estler WT, Kunzmann H (2015) Measurement technologies for precision positioning. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 64(2):773–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cuypers W, Van Gestel N, Voet A, Kruth JP, Mingneau J, Bleys P (2009) Optical measurement techniques for mobile and large-scale dimensional metrology. Opt Lasers Eng 47(3–4):292–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Saadat M, Cretin L (2002) Measurement systems for large aerospace components. Sens Rev 22(3):199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gordon SJ, Seering WP (1988) Realtime part position sensing. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell 10(3):374–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Skotheim Ø, Lind M, Ystgaard P, and Fjerdingen SA (2012) “A flexible 3D object localization system for industrial part handling”. IEEE Int Conf Intell Robot Syst, pp. 3326–3333Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tingelstad L, Egeland O (2014) Robotic assembly of aircraft engine components using a closed-loop alignment process. Procedia CIRP 23(C):110–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Muralikrishnan B, Phillips S, Sawyer D (2016) Laser trackers for large-scale dimensional metrology: a review. Precis Eng 44:13–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Uekita M, Takaya Y (2016) On-machine dimensional measurement of large parts by compensating for volumetric errors of machine tools. Precis Eng 43:200–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kyle S, Loser R, and Warren D (1997) “Automated part positioning with the laser tracker”. Proc 5th Int Work Accel Alignment, pp. 1–9Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zatarain M, Mendikute A, Inziarte I (2012) Raw part characterisation and automated alignment by means of a photogrammetric approach. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 61(1):383–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mendikute A, Zatarain M (2013) Automated raw part alignment by a novel machine vision approach. Procedia Eng 63:812–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Srinivasan H, Harrysson OLA, Wysk RA (2015) Automatic part localization in a CNC machine coordinate system by means of 3D scans. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 81(5–8):1127–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Okarma K and Grudzinski M (2012) “The 3D scanning system for the machine vision based positioning of workpieces on the CNC machine tools” 2012 17th Int. Conf. Methods Model. Autom. Robot., pp. 85–90Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    CMS, “MAXIMA/G-REX 5 axes CNC working center.” [Online]. Available: https://www.scmgroup.com/it/cmsstone/products/sistemi-per-la-lavorazione-della-pietra.c12299/centri-di-lavoro-orizzontale.12301/g-rex.12315. Accessed 13 Dec 2017
  32. 32.
    “Elan d.o.o. Wind power division.” [Online]. Available: http://www.elan.si/en/us/. Accessed 13 Dec 2017
  33. 33.
    Bračun D, Škulj G, Kadiš M (2017) Spectral selective and difference imaging laser triangulation measurement system for on line measurement of large hot workpieces in precision open die forging. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90(1–4):917–926Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringLjubljanaSlovenia

Personalised recommendations