Advertisement

Effects of tool path in remanufacturing cylindrical components by laser metal deposition

  • Xinchang Zhang
  • Wenyuan Cui
  • Wei Li
  • Frank Liou
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

Laser metal deposition as an additive manufacturing process has been widely utilized for component repair. In this study, in order to investigate the influence of tool path on characteristics of coatings for cylindrical part repair, multi-layer cobalt-based alloy was coated on cylindrical tool steel substrates using the blown powder laser metal deposition process following the helix (H), circle-line-circle (CLC), and line-arc-line (LAL) routes. A series of analysis was performed on the coatings including shape’s profile, powder-catch efficiency, microstructure, EDS, XRD, and Vickers hardness. The result shows coatings fabricated using the H and CLC routes have consistent thickness while more material was deposited near the middle for the LAL route. Powder-catch efficiency for the CLC and LAL paths was up to 28% while it was only 14% for the H route. The microstructure near the coating’s starting point was columnar dendrites growing parallel to the heat flux direction. Cooling speed reduced after several layers’ coating and equiaxed-like morphology appeared. Much gas porosity was discovered near the interface for LAL-coated samples. EDS and XRD analysis show Fe was diffused into the coatings. Microhardness measurement reveals that the hardness of LAL fabricated samples was slightly higher than the hardness of H and CLC samples. The result shows that the CLC path is more suitable for repairing/coating cylindrical components due to a relatively consistent shape, a high powder-catch efficiency, and defect-free deposits.

Keywords

Laser metal deposition Repair Tool path Coating Cylindrical parts 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Funding information

This project was supported by National Science Foundation Grants CMMI-1547042 and CMMI 1625736, and the Intelligent Systems Center, Center for Aerospace Manufacturing Technologies, and Material Research Center at Missouri S&T. Their financial support is greatly appreciated.

References

  1. 1.
    Jhavar S, Paul CP, Jain NK (2013) Causes of failure and repairing options for dies and molds: a review. Eng Fail Anal 34:519–535.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engfailanal.2013.09.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bi G, Gasser A (2011) Restoration of nickel-base turbine blade knife-edges with controlled laser aided additive manufacturing. Phys Procedia 12:402–409.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phpro.2011.03.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Petrat T, Graf B, Gumenyuk A, Rethmeier M (2016) Laser metal deposition as repair technology for a gas turbine burner made of Inconel 718. Phys Procedia 83:761–768.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phpro.2016.08.078 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vilar R, Almeida A (2015) Repair and manufacturing of single crystal Ni-based superalloys components by laser powder deposition—a review. J Laser Appl 27:S17004.  https://doi.org/10.2351/1.4862697 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wilson JM, Piya C, Shin YC, Zhao F, Ramani K (2014) Remanufacturing of turbine blades by laser direct deposition with its energy and environmental impact analysis. J Clean Prod 80:170–178.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.05.084 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yilmaz O, Gindy N, Gao J (2010) A repair and overhaul methodology for aeroengine components. Robot Comput Integr Manuf 26:190–201.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcim.2009.07.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Capello E, Colombo D, Previtali B (2005) Repairing of sintered tools using laser cladding by wire. J Mater Process Technol 165:990–1000.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2005.02.075 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li B, Jin Y, Yao J, Li Z, Zhang Q (2017) Solid-state fabrication of WC p -reinforced Stellite-6 composite coatings with supersonic laser deposition. Surf Coatings Technol 321:386–396.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2017.04.062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Luo F, Cockburn A, Lupoi R, Sparkes M, O'Neill W (2012) Performance comparison of Stellite 6® Deposited on steel using supersonic laser deposition and laser cladding. Surf Coatings Technol 212:119–127.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2012.09.031 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nowotny S, Scharek S, Beyer E, Richter KH (2007) Laser beam build-up welding: precision in repair, surface cladding, and direct 3D metal deposition. J Therm Spray Technol 16:344–348.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11666-007-9028-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Uriondo A, Esperon-Miguez M, Perinpanayagam S (2015) The present and future of additive manufacturing in the aerospace sector: a review of important aspects. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part G J Aerosp Eng 229:2132–2147.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0954410014568797 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mudge RRP, Wald NNR (2007) Laser engineered net shaping advances additive manufacturing and repair. Weld Journal New York 86:44–48Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li W, Chen X, Yan L, Zhang J, Zhang X, Liou F (2017) Additive manufacturing of a new Fe-Cr-Ni alloy with gradually changing compositions with elemental powder mixes and thermodynamic calculation. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95:1013–1023.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-1302-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Gu DD, Meiners W, Wissenbach K, Poprawe R (2012) Laser additive manufacturing of metallic components: materials, processes and mechanisms. Int Mater Rev 57:133–164.  https://doi.org/10.1179/1743280411Y.0000000014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cui C, Guo Z, Liu Y, Xie Q, Wang Z, Hu J, Yao Y (2007) Characteristics of cobalt-based alloy coating on tool steel prepared by powder feeding laser cladding. Opt Laser Technol 39:1544–1550.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2006.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Li M, He Y, Sun G (2004) Laser cladding Co-based alloy/SiCp composite coatings on IF steel. Mater Des 25:355–358.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2003.08.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu Q, Wang Y, Zheng H, Tang K, Li H, Gong S (2016) TC17 titanium alloy laser melting deposition repair process and properties. Opt Laser Technol 82:1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.optlastec.2016.02.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang X, Li W, Chen X et al (2017) Evaluation of component repair using direct metal deposition from scanned data. Int J Adv Manuf Technol:1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-1455-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wang J, Prakash S, Yashodhan Joshi FL (2002) Laser aided part repair—a review. Proc. Thirteen. Annu. Solid Free. Fabr, SympGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Graf B, Gumenyuk A, Rethmeier M (2012) Laser metal deposition as repair technology for stainless steel and titanium alloys. Phys Procedia 39:376–381.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phpro.2012.10.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang X, Li W, Chen X, Cui W, Liou F (2017) Evaluation of component repair using direct metal deposition from scanned data. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95:3335–3348.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-1455-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zhang X, Li W, Adkison KM, Liou F (2018) Damage reconstruction from tri-dexel data for laser-aided repairing of metallic components. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 96:3377–3390.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-018-1830-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhang X, Li W, Liou F (2017) Damage detection and reconstruction algorithm in repairing compressor blade by direct metal deposition. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95:2393–2404.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-1413-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Paydas H, Mertens A, Carrus R, Lecomte-Beckers J, Tchoufang Tchuindjang J (2015) Laser cladding as repair technology for Ti–6Al–4V alloy: influence of building strategy on microstructure and hardness. Mater Des 85:497–510.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2015.07.035 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dinda GP, Dasgupta AK, Mazumder J (2009) Laser aided direct metal deposition of Inconel 625 superalloy: microstructural evolution and thermal stability. Mater Sci Eng A 509:98–104.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2009.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Liu Z, Qi H (2015) Effects of processing parameters on crystal growth and microstructure formation in laser powder deposition of single-crystal superalloy. J Mater Process Technol 216:19–27.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2014.08.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Laoui T, Santos E, Osakada K, Shiomi M, Morita M, Shaik SK, Tolochko NK, Abe F, Takahashi M (2006) Properties of titanium dental implant models made by laser processing. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part C J Mech Eng Sci 220:857–863.  https://doi.org/10.1243/09544062JMES133 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Emamian A, Corbin SF, Khajepour A (2011) The influence of combined laser parameters on in-situ formed TiC morphology during laser cladding. Surf Coatings Technol 206:124–131.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.06.062 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kumar S, Sharma V, Choudhary AKS, Chattopadhyaya S, Hloch S (2013) Determination of layer thickness in direct metal deposition using dimensional analysis. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 67:2681–2687.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-012-4683-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Penaranda X, Moralejo S, Lamikiz A, Figueras J (2017) An adaptive laser cladding methodology for blade tip repair. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 92:4337–4343.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-017-0500-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Paul CP, Alemohammad H, Toyserkani E, Khajepour A, Corbin S (2007) Cladding of WC-12 Co on low carbon steel using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Mater Sci Eng A 464:170–176.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2007.01.132 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bin MH, Zhao WQ (2012) Research of fiber laser cladding technology on shaft-parts. Appl Mech Mater 217–219:2238–2241.  https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMM.217-219.2238 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Torims T (2013) The application of laser cladding to mechanical component repair, renovation and regeneration. DAAAM Int Sci B:587–608.  https://doi.org/10.2507/daaam.scibook.2013.32 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Torims T, Ratkus A, Vilcans J (2012) Imece2012-85354 new in-situ technology for marine diesel engine crankshaft. ASME Int Mech Eng Congr Expo:1–8Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Torims T, Pikurs G, Ratkus A, Logins A, Vilcans J, Sklariks S (2015) Development of technological equipment to laboratory test in-situ laser cladding for marine engine crankshaft renovation. Procedia Eng 100:559–568.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2015.01.405 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pu Z, Singh A (2013) High speed ball nose end milling of hardened AISI A2 tool steel with PCBN and coated carbide tools. J Manuf Process 15:467–473.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmapro.2013.05.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lin WC, Chen C (2006) Characteristics of thin surface layers of cobalt-based alloys deposited by laser cladding. Surf Coatings Technol 200:4557–4563.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.03.033 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mingxi L, Yizhu H, Guoxiong S (2004) Microstructure and wear resistance of laser clad cobalt-based alloy multi-layer coatings. Appl Surf Sci 230:201–206.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2004.02.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xinchang Zhang
    • 1
  • Wenyuan Cui
    • 1
  • Wei Li
    • 1
  • Frank Liou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical & Aerospace EngineeringMissouri University of Science and TechnologyRollaUSA

Personalised recommendations