Optimization of friction stir spot welding process parameters for Al-Cu dissimilar joints using the energy of the vibration signals

  • Alberto Nacer Colmenero
  • Mario Sánchez OrozcoEmail author
  • Emilio Jiménez Macías
  • Julio Blanco Fernández
  • Juan Carlos Sáenz-Diez Muro
  • Hipólito Carvajal Fals
  • Angel Sánchez Roca


A friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process for dissimilar aluminum alloy AA1050 and pure copper sheets of 3-mm thickness at different tool rotation speeds between 710 and 1800 rpm and dwell time levels of 0, 5, and 10 s were performed in this study. Empirical relationships were developed to predict the shear failure load (joint strength) and the energy of the vibration signals incorporating two of the most important process parameters, tool rotation speed and dwell time. Process parameters were optimized by using the response surface method (RSM); the optimal values of tool rotation speed and dwell time were 1255 rpm and 4 s, respectively. The parameters optimization results were used in a confirmation test; the dissimilar Al/Cu FSSW joints made with optimal parameters exhibit a good shear failure load. The close relationship between the shear failure load (SFL) of the welded joint and the energy of the vibration signals (EVS) generated during FSSW process was demonstrated. This model can be used to develop and optimize the parameters for automatic control of the FSSW process, based on the vibration signal generated.


friction stir spot welding dissimilar Cu/Al joints parameters optimization energy of vibration signal 


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Funding information

This paper has been partially supported by the project of the Spanish Government, DPI2011-25007: “Friction Stir Welding of Dissimilar Materials. Characterization by Acoustic Emission Techniques and Artificial Intelligence.”


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alberto Nacer Colmenero
    • 1
  • Mario Sánchez Orozco
    • 1
    Email author
  • Emilio Jiménez Macías
    • 2
  • Julio Blanco Fernández
    • 3
  • Juan Carlos Sáenz-Diez Muro
    • 2
  • Hipólito Carvajal Fals
    • 1
  • Angel Sánchez Roca
    • 1
  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUniversidad de OrienteSantiago de CubaCuba
  2. 2.Electrical Engineering DepartmentUniversidad de La RiojaLogroñoSpain
  3. 3.Mechanical Engineering DepartmentUniversidad La RiojaLogroñoSpain

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