Study of 3D parameters and residual stress in grinding of AISI 4340 steel hardened using different cutting fluids

  • Leonardo Roberto da SilvaEmail author
  • Davi Alves da Silva
  • Francisco Vieira dos Santos
  • Fernando Júnio Duarte


In the grinding process, high temperatures occur due to the removal of materials and the residual stresses that are generated on the machined surface, thus affecting the mechanical behaviour of the material. The performance of this process depends largely on conditions of cooling to prevent overheat of the parts, which can interfere in surface integrity of the pieces. Residual stress is a key factor that influences the reliability, precision and life useful of final products. As such, 3D parameters are important in tribological studies, with many of them showing a strong correlation with surface operational performance. Therefore, this work aims to study, through the 3D surface parameter and residual stress, the surface behaviour of AISI 4340 hardened steel after plunge grinding, while using different cutting fluids (mix—50% based mineral oil and 50% soybean oil; synthetic cutting fluid and integral fluid—mineral oil-based lubricant), as well as the use of minimum quantity lubricant (MQL) technique. All the residual stresses found for in the grinding samples under all cooling conditions were compressive stresses, which are beneficial to machined components. The synthetic fluid had lower compressive stresses. In relation to the 3D parameters, integral and mixing fluids also obtained a better performance because these fluids allowed greater lubrication in comparison to other fluids used. The results showed that the type of cutting fluid influenced the surface integrity of the ground pieces. It was concluded that the results showed the use of the mix and MQL fluids as an alternative to the use of the integral and synthetic cutting fluids, thus contributing to an ecologically correct and sustainable manufacture.


Grinding Cutting fluids 3D parameters Residual stress Surface integrity Minimum quantity lubricant—MQL 


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The authors would like to express gratitude to CNPq for scholarship Research Productivity and to CEFET-MG for the scholarship and research assistance.


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© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leonardo Roberto da Silva
    • 1
    Email author
  • Davi Alves da Silva
    • 1
  • Francisco Vieira dos Santos
    • 1
  • Fernando Júnio Duarte
    • 1
  1. 1.Materials Engineering DepartmentFederal Center of Technological Education of Minas Gerais—CEFET/MGBelo HorizonteBrazil

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