Connection status evaluation in arc stud weld joints by ultrasonic detection

  • Juan Dong
  • Guocheng Xu
  • Hongyang Yu
  • Guoquan Fan
  • Lingbo Wei
  • Xiaopeng GuEmail author


Precise mechanical ultrasonic scan detection is used in this study for evaluating the connection status of arc stud weld (ASW) joints. The study reveals the relationship between different connection states of ASW joint and ultrasonic scan eigenvalues in time domain, frequency domain, and time–frequency domain. The analysis results in time domain and frequency domain show that according to the amplitude of the first echo from the bottom of the steel plate in time domain and the amplitude at the main frequency of 1.25 MHz in frequency domain, the ASW joint can be identified from the base metal. The analysis in time–frequency domain shows that according to the amplitude of the specific high frequency, the weak connection zone can be identified from the ASW joint. This lays a foundation for the identification of ASW joint fusion zone and has positive significance in practical applications.


Arc stud welding Ultrasonic detection Time–frequency domain Weak connection zone 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This research work was supported financially by the following projects:

  1. 1.

    The Province-University Joint Construction Plan of Jilin Province, project no. SXGJSF2017-3, People’s Republic of China

  2. 2.

    The National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC), project no. 51607010, People’s Republic of China.

  3. 3.

    The Science and Technology Development Plan of Jilin Province, project no. 20180201004G X, People’s Republic of China.



  1. 1.
    Hynes NRJ, Nagaraj P, Sujana JAJ (2012) Investigation on joining of aluminum and mild steel by friction stud welding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 27(12):1409–1413. Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hynes NRJ, Nagaraj P, Sujana JAJ (2014) Mechanical evaluation and microstructure of friction stud welded aluminium–mild steel joints. Arab J Sci Eng 39(6):5017–5023. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Scotchmer N (2015) The use of capacitor discharge welding is on the rise. Weld J 94(2):32–36Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fricke W, Tchuindjang DD (2013) Fatigue strength behaviour of stud-arc welded joints in load-carrying ship structures. Weld World 57(4):495–506. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ramasamy S (2002) Drawn arc aluminum stud welding for automotive applications. JOM-US 54(8):44–46. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Oh HS, Lee JH, Yoo CD (2007) Simulation of capacitor discharge stud welding process and void formation. Sci Technol Weld Join 12(3):274–281. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ramasamy S, Gould J, Workman D (2002) Design-of-experiments study to examine the effect of polarity on stud welding. Weld J 81(2):19–26sGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hsu C, Mumaw J (2011) Weldability of advanced high-strength steel drawn arc stud welding. Weld J 90:45–53Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Xu YC, Jing HY, Han YD, Xu LY (2017) Microstructures and mechanical properties of friction tapered stud overlap welding for X65 pipeline steel under wet conditions. J Mater Eng Perform 26:4092–4103. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Talaş Ş, Doğan M, Çakmakkaya M, Kurt A (2014) The effect of voltage on the arc stud welding of microwave sintered Fe + Al powder mixture. Mater Res 17(3):632–637. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Higashiyama H, Yoshida K, Inamoto K, Matsui S, Kaido H (2014) Fatigue of headed studs welded with improved ferrules under rotating shear force. J Constr Steel Res 92(1):211–218. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Harada Y, Sada Y, Kumai S (2016) Joining steel studs and steel plates by solid-state stud welding and estimation of temperature near the joint interface. J Manuf Process 23:75–82. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Başyiğit AB, Kurt A (2017) Investigation of the weld properties of dissimilar S32205 duplex stainless steel with AISI 304 steel joints produced by arc stud welding. Metals-Basel 7(3):77. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wu B, Zhang F, Xue T (2015) Monocular-vision-based method for online measurement of pose parameters of weld stud. Measurement 61:263–269. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu J, Xu GC, Ren L, Qian ZH, Ren LQ (2017) Simulation analysis of ultrasonic detection for resistance spot welding based on COMSOL Multiphysics. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 93(5–8):2089–2096. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Zhou K, Cai LL (2013) Online nugget diameter control system for resistance spot welding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 68(9–12):2571–2588. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee HT, Wang M, Maev R, Maeva E (2003) A study on using scanning acoustic microscopy and neural network techniques to evaluate the quality of resistance spot welding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 22(9–10):727–732. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Liu J, Xu GC, Ren L, Qian ZH, Ren LQ (2017) Defect intelligent identification in resistance spot welding ultrasonic detection based on wavelet packet and neural network. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 90:2581–2588. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhou GH, Xu GC, Gu XP, Liu J (2016) Research on evaluating laser welding quality based on two-dimensional array ultrasonic probe. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 84:1717. Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ao SS, Zhen L, Feng MN, Yan FY (2015) Simulation and experimental analysis of acoustic signal characteristics in laser welding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 81(1):277–287. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ben BS, Yang SH, Ratnam C, Ben BA (2013) Ultrasonic based structural damage detection using combined finite element and model lamb wave propagation parameters in composite materials. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 67(5–8):1847–1856. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hynes NRJ, Nagaraj P, Sujana JAJ (2014) Ultrasonic evaluation of friction stud welded AA 6063/AISI 1030 steel joints. Mater Des 62:118–123. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Zhou GH, Xu GC, Liu J, Tian YK, Gu XP (2018) Study on quantitative ultrasonic test for Nd:YAG laser welding of thin stainless steel sheet. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 95:1677–1684. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Automobile Materials of Ministry of Education and Department of Materials Science and EngineeringJilin UniversityChangchunPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of EngineeringChangchun Normal UniversityChangchunPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.China FAW Co., Ltd. R&D CenterChangchunPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations