Determination of multi-direction loading path based on analytical method in forming of multi-cavity parts by considering folding defect

  • Zhichao SunEmail author
  • Jing Cao
  • Hongwei Qiu
  • Chenghao Zhang
  • Han Zhang


In the forming of multi-cavity parts by multi-direction loading, the loading path greatly affects the material flow, the cavity filling, and folding defect generation, which is prone to occur and restricts the realization of forming process and guarantee of forming quality. How to determine the reasonable loading path related to part structures is urgent and of challenges. In this paper, the design principle of loading path is proposed, and aiming at the complex structures (different diameters and angles of main and branch pipes, different structures and dimensions) of the formed multi-cavity parts, the initial loading displacement of main punch is quickly determined by a new analytical method and further the overall reasonable loading path, where the volume transfer law and invariance principle are considered. The application in quick determination of loading path in 316LN stainless steel cross valve shows that the analytical method proposed in this paper is reliable and practical. Consequently, the method can provide a scientific basis for the quick determination of the reasonable loading path for diverse and complex multi-cavity parts.


Multi-cavity part Loading path Analytical method Metal flow Folding defect 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


Funding information

The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the supports of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51675432) and the Research Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing (NWPU) (156-QP-2016).


  1. 1.
    Gontarz A (2006) Forming process of valve drop forging with three cavities. J Mater Process Technol 177:228–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Teng BG, Li K, Yuan SJ (2013) Optimization of loading path in hydroforming T-shape using fuzzy control algorithm. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 69:1079–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sun ZC, Yang H (2014) Microstructural evolution in multiway loading-forming process of AISI 5140 steel triple valve body. Metall Mater Trans B Process Metall Mater Process Sci 45:523–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sun ZC, Yang H, Guo XF (2013) FE analysis on deformation and temperature nonuniformity in forming of AISI-5140 triple valve by multi-way loading. J Mater Eng Perform 22:358–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhao MX (2016) Study on the folding defects formation mechanism for forging the part with branch. Dissertation, Yanshan University, Hebei, 2016. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gao PF, Yang H, Fan XG, Lei PH (2015) Forming limit of local loading forming of Ti-alloy large-scale rib-web components considering defects in the transitional region. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 80:1015–1026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sun ZC, Cao J, Wu HL, Yin ZK (2018) Inhomogeneous deformation law in forming of multi-cavity parts under complex loading path. J Mater Process Technol 254:179–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Strano M, Jirathearanat S, Shr S, Altan T (2004) Virtual process development in tube hydroforming. J Mater Process Technol 146:130–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Xu JS (2002) Study on metal flow in multi-ram forging process of equal diameter tee joint. Forg Stamp Technol 4:11–14 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sun ZC, Yang H, Guo XF (2010) Modelling of microstructure evolution in AISI 5140 steel triple valve forming under multi-way loading. Steel Res Int 81(9):282–285Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Zhang DW, Zhao SD, Yand H (2014) Analysis of deformation characteristic in multi-way loading forming process of aluminum alloy cross valve based on finite element model. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 24(1):199–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cheng M, Zhang ZM (2008) Metal flow behavior on the non-uniform wall thickness three-way value extrusion. Mater Sci Forum 575–578:328–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cheng M, Zhang ZM (2013) Study of metal flow of tee joint valve body by multidirectional extrusion deformation and recrystallization. Rev Adv Mater Sci 33:251–256Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Zhang WH, Sun SH, Zhao D (2011) Hot deformation behavior of a Nb-containing 316LN stainless steel. Mater Des 32:4173–4179CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhichao Sun
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jing Cao
    • 1
  • Hongwei Qiu
    • 1
  • Chenghao Zhang
    • 1
  • Han Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.State Key Lab of Solidification Processing, Department of Materials Science and EngineeringNorthwestern Polytechnical UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations