Research on the effect of the waveform on the droplet injection behavior of a piezoelectric printhead and the forming accuracy of casting sand molds

  • Hong LiuEmail author
  • Yang Gao
  • Shaohu Ding
  • Fan Peng
  • Dexin Zhu


Injection behaviors of printheads are concerned by engineers since they affect the whole working performances and the printing quality of 3D printing device. In view of the quality instability issue for sand molds caused by the fluctuation of the droplet injection performance, a study on the relationship of the driving waveform parameters with the droplet injection performance of a casting sand mold printhead and the printing quality of the sand mold was carried out. Comprehensively considering the applied background of 3D printing in casting sand molds and using the separation of variables method, the quantitative relationship between the driving waveform parameters and the droplet injection characteristics was set up, and the injection performance of the printhead under the current waveform was evaluated through experiments. This article puts forward an optimal waveform for use in casting sand printing. Based on the analysis of existing conclusions, by using special equipment for casting sand mold 3D printing, the printing quality of the sand mold under the new waveform and the current waveform was studied via a comparison experiment. The results show that the new waveform is more suitable for sand mold printing of high-viscosity fluid, as it avoids the presence of satellite droplets. The qualification rate in terms of the sand mold size is enhanced by 44%, and the mechanical properties of the sand mold are effectively improved. This study provides a reliable basis for ensuring dimensional accuracy in the application of 3D printing technology in the precision casting field.


Printhead 3D printing Casting sand mold Microdroplet spray Forming accuracy 


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The authors were also very grateful to Kocel Machinery Limited for the supporting the experimental conditions and application of this research work.

Funding information

The research described in this paper was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51765001, 11764002), the National Natural Science Foundation of Ningxia (NZ17236), and the Key Scientific Research Projects of North Minzu University (2017KJ23).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hong Liu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yang Gao
    • 1
  • Shaohu Ding
    • 1
  • Fan Peng
    • 2
  • Dexin Zhu
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Mechatronic EngineeringNorth Minzu UniversityYinchuanChina
  2. 2.Kocel Machinery LimitedYinchuanChina

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