Quality of surface and subsurface layers after WEDM aluminum alloy 7475-T7351 including analysis of TEM lamella
- 69 Downloads
Wire electrical discharge machining (WEDM) is an unconventional machining method indispensable especially for the aeronautical and automotive industries. In this context, the effective manufacturing of high surface quality components from aluminum alloy 7475-T7351 requires comprehensive knowledge of the applied production procedures. We therefore performed a designed experiment comprising 33 cycles (with systematic alteration of machine setting parameters such as gap voltage, pulse on time, pulse off time, discharge current, and wire feed), enabling us to evaluate systematically the cutting speeds in the relevant samples. The machined areas were subjected to a thorough analysis involving both the surface and the subsurface layers. The actual topography was assessed using a non-contact profiler, and the entire operation concentrated on 12 parameters within the areal, profile, and basic and bearing profile categories. To observe the surface relief, we employed several instruments, including the semi-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique, a digital microscope, and a non-contact 3D profiler. Another major step then consisted in examining the morphology and surface defects, a process suitably complemented with a chemical composition analysis (EDX). The distribution of individual elements within the material was investigated in detail using a lamella, whose subsequent inspection relied on a transmission electron microscope (TEM) as the principal tool. To study the subsurface layer and its defects, we prepared metallographic specimens (cross-sections) of the samples and observed them by means of light and electron microscopes.
KeywordsWEDM Electrical discharge machining Aluminum alloy 7475-T7351 Morphology Topography TEM lamella Design of experiment
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Part of the work was carried out with the support of CEITEC Nano Research Infrastructure (ID LM2015041, MEYS CR, 2016–2019), CEITEC Brno University of Technology.
This paper is an output of the research and scientific activities of NETME Centre, supported through project NETME CENTRE PLUS (LO1202) from funds of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports under “National Sustainability Programme I.”
This work was supported by BUT grant FSI-S-17-4785 “Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence.”
The article was supported from project no. FEKT-S-17-3934, utilization of novel findings in micro and nanotechnologies for complex electronic circuits and sensor applications.
This research was supported by the BUT, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno, Specific research 2016, with the grant “Research of modern production technologies for specific applications,” FSI-S-16-3717 and technical support of Intemac Solutions, Ltd., Kurim.
This work was supported through an internal grant provided by Jan Evangelista Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, titled SGS (Student Grant Competition), No. 0004/2015, and also in part by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport of the Czech Republic, programme NPU1, project No. LO1207.
This research has been financially supported by the Specific University Research grant of Brno University of Technology, FEKT/STI-J-18-5354.
- 1.Jain VK (2009) Advanced machining processes, Allied publishers ISBN 81-7764-294-4Google Scholar
- 2.Jameson EC (2001) Electrical discharge machining. Publisher Society of Manufacturing Engineers ISBN 08-726-3521-XGoogle Scholar
- 5.Knight WA, Boothroyd G (2005) Fundamentals of metal machining and machine tools, 3rd edn. CRC Press ISBN 1-57444-659-2Google Scholar
- 11.Selvakumar G, Sarkar S, Mitra S (2013) An experimental analysis of single pass cutting of aluminium 5083 alloy in different corner angles through WEDM. Int J Mach Mach Mater 13(2-3):262–275Google Scholar
- 12.Srivastava A, Dixit AR, Tiwari S (2014) Experimental investigation of wire EDM process parameteres on aluminum metal matrix composite Al2024/SiC. Int J Adv Res Innov 2:511–515Google Scholar
- 18.Mouralova K (2015) Moderní technologie drátového elektroerozivního rezání kovových slitin. Thesis. Brno: CERM ISBN 80-214-2131-2Google Scholar
- 19.Montgomery DC (2013) Design and analysis of experiments, 18th edn. John Wiley & Sons ISBN 978-1118146927-XGoogle Scholar
- 20.(1996) Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) - surface texture: profile method; Surfaces having stratified functional properties - part 2: height characterization using the linear material ratio curve. ISO 13565-2. Geneva: International Organization for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
- 21.(2012) Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) -surface texture: areal -part 2: terms, definitions and surface texture parameters. ISO 25178-2. Geneva: International Organization for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
- 22.(1997) Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) -Surface texture: profile method -Terms, definitions and surface texture parameters. ISO 4287. Geneva: International Organization for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
- 23.Petropoulos GP, Pandazaras CN, Davim JP (2010) Surface texture characterization and evaluation related to machining. Surface integrity in machining. 37-66Google Scholar
- 25.Thoma H, Peri L, Lato E (2015) Evaluation of wood surface roughness depending on species characteristics. Maderas. Ciencia y tecnología 17(2):285–292Google Scholar
- 28.McGeough JA (1988) Advanced methods of machining. Springer Science & Business MediaGoogle Scholar
- 34.Atzeni E, Bassoli E, Gatto A, Iuliano L, Minetola P, Salmi A (2015) 901 Surface and sub surface evaluation in coated-wire electrical dis- 902 charge machining (WEDM) of INCONEL® alloy 718. Procedia 903 CIRP 33:388–393Google Scholar