Electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique as alternative to monitor workpiece surface damages after the grinding operation

  • Rosemar Batista da SilvaEmail author
  • Fabio Isaac Ferreira
  • Fabrício Guimares Baptista
  • Paulo Roberto de Aguiar
  • Rodrigo de Souza Ruzzi
  • Henrique Butzlaff Hubner
  • Maria da Penha Cindra Fonseca
  • Eduardo Carlos Bianchi


Electromechanical impedance (EMI) technique has been employed in detection of structural failure in civil and mechanical structures because of its non-destructive property and easy implementation of small and inexpensive piezoelectric transducers that are attached to the structures, which lead to cost reduction as well as lesser dependence of manual inspection methods. In this technique, the capsule is excited by applying a sinusoidal voltage to generate waves to propagate throughout the structure. From the impedance signature of the structure without any damage, any structural change can be detected by measuring the electrical impedance of the piezoelectric (PZT) patch. Based on its real potentiality and because of its non-destructive characteristics, this work aimed to employ the EMI technique as the first alternative to monitor workpiece surface damages after grinding operation with a conventional abrasive grinding wheel. EMI measurements were performed by using a low-cost PZT transducer and under controlled environmental conditions. Microhardness and surface roughness of the machined surfaces, as well as grinding power, were also measured to detect any damage in the machined surface and to stablish relationship with the EMI technique. From the damage indices root mean square deviation (RMSD) and correlation coefficient deviation metric (CCDM), surface alterations on the ground surfaces were inferred by the EMI method. Also, it was observed a good correlation between the EMI technique and the other output parameters that were investigated in this work, such as surface roughness and power grinding, thereby posing as a non-destructive, low-cost, and viable technique to monitor workpiece surface damages in the grinding operation.


Grinding Surface integrity Non-destructive technique Electromechanical impedance Microhardness Surface roughness Grinding power Piezoelectric transducers 


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The authors thanks initially the Department of Electrical Engineering of Faculty of Engineering Bauru (Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Sao Paulo, Brazil) and School of Mechanical Engineering of Federal University of Uberlandia, MG, Brazil, for enabling the development of the research that resulted in this work. One of authors, Rosemar Batista da Silva, thanks the Post-Graduate Program of Electrical Engineering of FEB-UNESP-BAURU for the all the laboratory facilities and support, as well as CAPES for the concession of the PNDP post-doctoral scholarship at the Post-Graduate Program of Electrical Engineering of FEB-UNESP-BAURU (2016–2017). The same author also is grateful to the Federal University of Uberlandia (Brazil) for approving his post-doctoral leave.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


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© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosemar Batista da Silva
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fabio Isaac Ferreira
    • 2
  • Fabrício Guimares Baptista
    • 2
  • Paulo Roberto de Aguiar
    • 2
  • Rodrigo de Souza Ruzzi
    • 1
  • Henrique Butzlaff Hubner
    • 1
  • Maria da Penha Cindra Fonseca
    • 3
  • Eduardo Carlos Bianchi
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringFederal University of Uberlandia (UFU)UberlândiaBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Bauru (FEB)São Paulo State University (UNESP)São PauloBrazil
  3. 3.School of MechanicalFederal University Fluminense (UFF)NiteróiBrazil
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering Bauru (FEB)São Paulo State University (UNESP)São PauloBrazil

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