A study on spectral characterization and quality detection of direct metal deposition process based on spectral diagnosis

  • Bo Chen
  • Yongzhen Yao
  • Caiwang Tan
  • Yuhua Huang
  • Jicai Feng
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
  • 21 Downloads

Abstract

In the process of laser additive manufacturing, the transmission efficiency of laser energy and the forming quality are influenced by the plasma which plays a fundamental role in coupling the incident radiation to the material. The aim of this work is to present an effective spectral diagnosis method for quality research in laser additive manufacturing. A spectrum acquisition system for direct metal deposition (DMD) was established by using fiber optic spectrometer to collect the radiation during the forming process under different process parameters. The relationships between laser powers, powder feeding rate, traverse speed, and the radiation intensity of the plasma were found. Meanwhile, special wavelengths were chosen to establish the time-domain diagram (the relationship between the intensity and time) corresponding to the process, and some forming defects caused by the changes of processing parameters were correlated with the spectral information. What is more, to diagnose the defects automatically, statistical process control (SPC) method was used to analyze the correlations between intensity fluctuation and the forming defects. The findings of the paper will be helpful to understand the formative mechanism and influencing factors of laser-induced plasma during laser additive manufacturing and lay the foundations for automatic quality control of laser additive manufacturing process.

Keywords

Laser additive manufacturing Laser induced plasma Spectroscopic diagnosis SPC control 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province (No. ZR2017MEE042).

References

  1. 1.
    Mazumder J, Dutta D, Kikuchi N, Ghosh A (2000) Closed loop direct metal deposition: art to part. Opt Laser Eng 34(4–6):397–414CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dutta B, Singh V, Natu H, Choi J, Mazumder J (2009) Direct metal deposition. Adv Mater Process 167(3):29–31Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Atzeni E, Salmi A (2012) Economics of additive manufacturing for end-usable metal parts. Int J Adv Manuf Tech 62(9–12):1147–1155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ivanova O, Williams C, Campbell T (2013) Additive manufacturing (AM) and nanotechnology: promises and challenges. Rapid Prototyping J 19(5):353–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Song L, Bagavath-Singh V, Dutta B, Mazumder J (2012) Control of melt pool temperature and deposition height during direct metal deposition process. Int J Adv Manuf Tech 58(1–4):247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pekkarinen J, Salminen A, Kujanpää V, Ilonen J, Lensu L, Kälviäinen H (2013) Laser cladding using scanning optics-effect of the powder feeding angle and gas flow on process stability. Opt Laser Technol 30:590–599Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Song L, Mazumder J (2012) Real time Cr measurement using optical emission spectroscopy during direct metal deposition process. IEEE Sensors J 12(5):958–964CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Song L, Mazumder J (2012) Identification of phase transformation using optical emission spectroscopy for direct metal deposition process. Proc SPIE 8239:11Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Wei Y, Konuk AR, Aarts R, Pathiraj B, Veld BHIT (2015) Spectroscopic monitoring of metallic bonding in laser metal deposition. J Mater Process Tech 220:276–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shea JE, Gardner CS (1983) Spectroscopic measurement of hydrogen contamination in weld arc plasmas. J Appl Phys 54(9):4928–4938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lee SH (2013) Spectroscopic studies and mathematical modeling of laser material interaction for development of intelligent quality monitoring system. Dissertation, University of MichiganGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tognoni E, Cristoforetti G, Legnaioli S, Palleschi V (2010) Calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: state of the art. Spectrochim Acta B 65(1):1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ocylok S, Alexeev E, Mann S, Weisheit A, Wissenbach K, Kelbassa I (2014) Correlations of melt pool geometry and process parameters during laser metal deposition by coaxial process monitoring. Phys Procedia 56:228–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Morgan SA, Fox M, McLean M, Hand DP (1997) Real-time process control in CO2 laser welding and direct casting: focus and temperature. Laser Mater Process Conf 11:290–299Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Smurov I, Ignatiev M (1996) Real time pyrometry in laser surface treatment. In: Mazumder J (ed) Laser processing: surface treatment and film deposition. NATO ASI Series (Series E: Applied Sciences). Springer, Dordrecht, pp 1955–1961Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Griffith ML, Hofmeister WH, Knorovsky GA, Maccallum DO, Schlienger EM, Smugeresky JE (2002) Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control. USGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kobryn PA, Moore EH, Semiatin SL (2000) Effect of laser power and traverse speed on microstructure, porosity, and build height in laser-deposited Ti-6Al-4V. Scripta Mater 43(4):299–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rometsch PA, Pelliccia D, Tomus D, Wu X (2014) Evaluation of polychromatic X-ray radiography defect detection limits in a sample fabricated from Hastelloy X by selective laser melting. Ndt E Int 62(2):184–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ralchenko Y, Kramida AE, Reader J, Team NA (2011) NIST atomic spectra database (version 4.1.0). https://physics.nist.gov/asd. Accessed May 2011
  20. 20.
    Lacroix D, Jeandel G, Boudot C (1997) Spectroscopic characterization of laser-induced plasma created during welding with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. J Appl Phys 81(10):6599–6606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Meggers WF, Corliss CH, Scribner BF (1975) Tables of spectral-line intensities. National Bureau of Standards Monograph, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Griem HR (1964) Plasma spectroscopy. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lajunen LHJ, Peramaki P (2004) Spectrochemical analysis by atomic absorption and emission. Royal Society of Chemistry, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Oakland JS (2007) Statistical process control. Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bo Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yongzhen Yao
    • 2
  • Caiwang Tan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yuhua Huang
    • 2
  • Jicai Feng
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.State key laboratory of advanced welding and joiningHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina
  2. 2.Shandong provincial key laboratory of special welding technologyHarbin Institute of Technology at WeihaiWeihaiChina

Personalised recommendations