Energy-efficient scheduling of flexible flow shop of composite recycling

  • Ying Liu
  • Michael Farnsworth
  • Ashutosh Tiwari
Open Access


Composite recycling technologies have been developed to tackle the increasing use of composites in industry and as a result of restrictions placed on landfill disposal. Mechanical, thermal and chemical approaches are the existing main recycling techniques to recover the fibres. Some optimisation work for reducing energy consumed by above processes has also been developed. However, the resource efficiency of recycling composites at the workshop level has never been considered before. Considering the current trend of designing and optimising a system in parallel and the future needs of the composite recycling business, a flexible flow shop for carbon fibre reinforced composite recycling is modelled. Optimisation approaches based on non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) have been developed to reduce the time and energy consumed for processing composite wastes by searching for the optimal sub-lot splitting and resource scheduling plans. Case studies on different composite recycling scenarios have been conducted to prove the feasibility of the model and the developed algorithm.


Energy-efficient scheduling Composite recycling Flexible flow shop scheduling Multi-objective optimisation Genetic algorithms 



The funding from EPSRC for the EXHUME project (EP/K026348/1) is gratefully acknowledged.


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Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EngineeringUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowUK
  2. 2.Department of Automatic Control and Systems EngineeringUniversity of SheffieldSheffieldUK

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