Visualisation and numerical simulation of material flow behaviour during high-speed FSW process of 2024 aluminium alloy thin plate

  • D. Q. Qin
  • L. FuEmail author
  • Z. K. Shen


Material flow during friction stir welding of ultra-thin 2024 aluminium alloy plates was investigated by using copper powder as marker material. Based on the visualised experiment and numerical computation of material flow produced in the research, the effect of rotational speed on material flow was revealed. In high rotational speed FSW process, flow distance along welding direction of plastic metal on both sides and transverse flow distance to the weld centre line on the retreating side were shorter; however, a larger flow velocity was shown. The flow velocity of plastic metal decreased with the increasing of distance from the weld centre, while it increased with the increasing of rotational speed under a constant rotational speed/welding speed ratio. Maximum and minimum values of the flow velocity of plastic metal were located at the intersection of triple spiral groove of shoulder and both sides of its outer diameter edge, respectively.


2024 aluminium alloy Ultra-thin plate Friction stir welding Material flow High rotational speed 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


Funding information

The authors received financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51575450), the Natural Science Foundation of Shaanxi Province (No. S2016YFJZ0164) and the Research Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Solidification Processing (NWPU) (No.127-QP-2015).


  1. 1.
    Thomas WM, Nicholas ED, Needham JC, Murch MG, Templesmith P, Dawes CJ (1991) Friction-stir butting welding, GB Patent No: 9125978.8, International patent No: PCT/GB92/02203Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liu FC, Ma ZY (2008) Influence of tool dimension and welding parameters on microstructure and mechanical properties of friction-stir-welded 6061-T651 aluminum alloy. Metall Mater Trans A 39(10):2378–2388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pang JJ, Liu FC, Liu J, Tan MJ, Balckwood DJ (2016) Friction stir processing of aluminum alloy AA7075: microstructure, surface chemistry and corrosion resistance. Corros Sci 106:217–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chen J, Fujii H, Sun Y, Morisada Y, Kondoh K (2017) Optimization of mechanical properties of fine-grained non-combustive magnesium alloy joint by asymmetrical double-sided friction stir welding. J Mater Process Technol 242:117–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Badarinarayan H, Yang Q, Zhua S (2009) Effect of tool geometry on static strength of friction stir spot-welded aluminum alloy. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 49(2):142–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chen HB, Wang JF, Zhen GD, Chen SB, Lin T (2015) Effects of initial oxide on microstructural and mechanical properties of friction stir welded AA2219 alloy. Mater Des 86:49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jain R, Pal SK, Singh SB (2018) Finite element simulation of pin shape influence on material flow, forces in friction stir welding. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 94(5–8):1781–1797CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ma ZY, Liu FC, Mishra RS (2010) Superplastic deformation mechanism of an ultrafine grained aluminum alloy produced by friction stir processing. Acta Mater 58(14):4693–4704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang Z, Xiao BL, Ma ZY (2015) Enhancing mechanical properties of friction stir welded 2219Al-T6 joints at high welding speed through water cooling and post-welding artificial ageing. Mater Charact 106:255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Çam G, İpekoğlu G (2017) Recent developments in joining of aluminum alloys. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 91(5–8):1851–1866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mendes N, Neto P, Loureiro A, Moreira AP (2016) Machines and control systems for friction stir welding: a review. Mater Des 90:256–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mao Y, Ke L, Liu F, Chen Y, Xing L (2017) Effect of tool pin-tip profiles on material flow and mechanical properties of friction stir welding thick AA7075-T6 alloy joints. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88(1–4):949–960Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dialami N, Chiumenti M, Cervera M, Saracibar CAD, Ponthot JP (2015) Material flow visualization in friction stir welding via particle tracing. Int J Mater Form 8(2):167–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu FC, Nelson TW (2016) In-situ material flow pattern around probe during friction stir welding of austenitic stainless steel. Mater Des 110:354–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tongne A, Desrayaud C, Jahazi M, Feulvarch E (2017) On material flow in friction stir welded Al alloys. J Mater Process Technol 239:284–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Colligan K (1999) Material flow behavior during friction stir welding of aluminum. Weld J 75(7):229–237Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Reynolds AP (2013) Visualization of material flow in autogenous friction stir welds. Sci Technol Weld Join 5(2):120–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Guerra M, Schmidt C, McClure JC, Murr LE, Nunes AC (2002) Flow patterns during friction stir welding. Mater Charact 49(2):95–l01CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schmidt HNB, Dickerson TL, Hattel JH (2006) Material flow in butt friction stir welds in AA2024-T3. Acta Mater 54(4):1199–1209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Huang Y, Wang Y, Wan L, Liu H, Shen J, Santos JFD, Zhou L, Feng J (2016) Material-flow behavior during friction-stir welding of 6082-T6 aluminum alloy. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 87(1–4):1115–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morisada Y, Fujii H, Kawahito Y, Nakata K, Tanaka M (2011) Three-dimensional visualization of material flow during friction stir welding by two pairs of X-ray transmission systems. Scr Mater 65(12):1085–1088CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Su H, Wu CS, Bachmann M, Rethmeier M (2015) Numerical modeling for the effect of pin profiles on thermal and material flow characteristics in friction stir welding. Mater Des 77:114–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hasan AF, Bennett CJ, Shipway PH (2015) A numerical comparison of the flow behaviour in friction stir welding (FSW) using unworn and worn tool geometries. Mater Des 87:1037–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Zhang L, Ji S, Luan G, Dong C, Fu L (2011) Friction stir welding of Al alloy thin plate by rotational tool without pin. J Mater Sci Technol 27(7):647–652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bhattacharya TK, Das H, Jana SS, Pal TK (2017) Numerical and experimental investigation of thermal history, material flow and mechanical properties of friction stir welded aluminium alloy to DHP copper dissimilar joint. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 88(1–4):847–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chen G, Li H, Wang G, Guo Z, Zhang S, Dai Q, Wang X, Zhang G, Shi Q (2018) Effects of pin thread on the in-process material flow behavior during friction stir welding: a computational fluid dynamics study. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 124:12–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Seidel TU, Reynolds AP (2001) Visualization of the material flow in AA295 friction-stir welds using a marker insert technique. Metall Mater Trans A 32(11):2879–2884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ouyang JH, Kovacevic R (2002) Material flow and microstructure in the friction stir butt welds of the same and dissimilar aluminum alloys. J Mater Eng Perform 11(1):51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shi L, Wu CS, Padhy GK, Gao S (2016) Numerical simulation of ultrasonic field and its acoustoplastic influence on friction stir welding. Mater Des 104:102–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Liu FJ, Fu L, Chen HY (2018) Effect of high rotational speed on temperature distribution, microstructure evolution, and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 6061-T6 thin plate joints. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 96(5–8):1823–1833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mishra RS, Ma ZY (2005) Friction stir welding and processing. Mater Sci Eng R 50(1–2):1–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Su H, Wu CS, Pittner A, Rethmeier M (2014) Thermal energy generation and distribution in friction stir welding of aluminum alloys. Energy 77:720–731CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Morisada Y, Imaizumi T, Fujii H (2015) Clarification of material flow and defect formation during friction stir welding. Sci Technol Weld Join 20(2):130–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Zhang Z, Zhang HW (2009) Numerical studies on controlling of process parameters in friction stir welding. J Mater Process Technol 209(1):241–270MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ji SD, Jin YY, Yue YM, Gao SS, Huang YX, Wang L (2013) Effect of temperature on material transfer behavior at different stages of friction stir welded 7075-T6 aluminum alloy. J Mater Sci Technol 29(10):955–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Colegrove PA, Shercliff HR (2005) 3-dimensional CFD modelling of flow round a threaded friction stir welding tool profile. J Mater Process Technol 169(2):320–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zhang HW, Zhang Z, Chen JT (2007) 3D modeling of material flow in friction stir welding under different process parameters. J Mater Process Technol 183(1):62–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Derazkola HA, Khodabakhshi F (2018) Intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formation during dissimilar friction-stir welding of AA5005 aluminum alloy to St-52 steel: numerical modeling and experimental study. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 1–22Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Sonne MR, Tutum CC, Hattel JH, Simar A, Meester BD (2013) The effect of hardening laws and thermal softening on modeling residual stresses in FSW of aluminum alloy 2024-T3. J Mater Process Technol 213(3):477–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Committee A.I.H Davis JR (1992) Properties and selection nonferrous alloys and special-purpose materials. Metals Handbook 2Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Fratini L, Buffa G (2005) CDRX modelling in friction stir welding of aluminum alloys. Int J Mach Tools Manuf 45(10):1188–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kumar R, Pancholi V, Bharti RP (2018) Material flow visualization and determination of strain rate during friction stir welding. J Mater Process Technol 255:470–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Materials Science and EngineeringNorthwestern Polytechnical UniversityXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of SolidificationXi’anPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Friction Welding TechnologiesXi’anPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations