Gaussian process-based surrogate modeling framework for process planning in laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing of 316L stainless steel

  • Gustavo Tapia
  • Saad Khairallah
  • Manyalibo Matthews
  • Wayne E. King
  • Alaa ElwanyEmail author


Laser Powder-Bed Fusion (L-PBF) metal-based additive manufacturing (AM) is complex and not fully understood. Successful processing for one material, might not necessarily apply to a different material. This paper describes a workflow process that aims at creating a material data sheet standard that describes regimes where the process can be expected to be robust. The procedure consists of building a Gaussian process-based surrogate model of the L-PBF process that predicts melt pool depth in single-track experiments given a laser power, scan speed, and laser beam size combination. The predictions are then mapped onto a power versus scan speed diagram delimiting the conduction from the keyhole melting controlled regimes. This statistical framework is shown to be robust even for cases where experimental training data might be suboptimal in quality, if appropriate physics-based filters are applied. Additionally, it is demonstrated that a high-fidelity simulation model of L-PBF can equally be successfully used for building a surrogate model, which is beneficial since simulations are getting more efficient and are more practical to study the response of different materials, than to re-tool an AM machine for new material powder.


Additive manufacturing Laser powder-bed fusion 316L stainless steel Gaussian processes Bayesian statistics 


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This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, and was partially supported by an Early Stage Innovations grant from NASA’s Space Technology Research Grants Program, Grant No. NNX15AD71G. This work was also partially funded through a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) grant, Grant No. 15-ERD-037. LLNL Release No. LLNL-JRNL-726754.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Ltd. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Industrial and Systems EngineeringTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA
  2. 2.Engineering DirectorateLawrence Livermore National LaboratoryLivermoreUSA
  3. 3.Physical and Life Sciences DirectorateLawrence Livermore National LaboratoryLivermoreUSA

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