S-shaped test piece aims to assess the performance of five-axis numerical control (NC) machine tools. When the draft international standard (DIS) was introduced at the 79th ISO/TC39SC2 meeting, it was agreed that this test piece would be included. The S-shaped test piece, however, has undeveloped surfaces, which contribute to theoretical error. Because the test piece is used to assess the performance of machine tools and to conduct error tracing, theoretical error should not be included in the detection results obtained by the coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Therefore, the S-shaped test piece, excluding the influences of theoretical error, is crucial to research. This paper calculates the theoretical error of the S-shaped test piece when processed with the single-point offset (SPO) position method and proposes pre-compensation (PRC) and post-compensation (POC) methods to eliminate the influences of theoretical error. We conducted a theoretical analysis to compare three methods, the two compensation methods and the one uncompensated method, and verified the results through actual experiments. Research from principle and practice demonstrates that both the PRC and POC methods compensated for theoretical error up to 0.01 mm and that PRC is more accurate when considering the difference of approximately ±0.0015 mm.
Five-axis numerical control machining Measurement Theoretical error Compensation S-shaped test piece
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