Advertisement

Structural life enhancement on friction stir welded AA6061 with optimized process and HFMI/PIT parameters

  • Yupiter H. P. ManurungEmail author
  • Mohamed Ackiel Mohamed
  • Azrriq Zainul Abidin
ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Abstract

This novel study presents an unconventional approach to find the best governing process parameters of high frequency mechanical impact technique based on multi-objective optimization method. In this investigation, the post-weld mechanical treatment is aimed to enhance fatigue resistance of structural friction-stirred weld subjected to fluctuating loads by obtaining nominal sub-surface hardness. The experimental study was conducted on aluminium alloy AA 6061 with thickness of 6 mm under varied parameters centred on indenter diameter, air pressure and impact frequency. The investigation began with obtaining optimum parameters for single response by using conventional Taguchi method with L9 orthogonal array. Next, advanced optimization approach by means of multi-objective Taguchi method attempts to consider the multiple responses simultaneously which are sub-surface hardness and structural life. As the final results, the optimum value was acquired by calculating the total normalized quality loss and multiple signal-to-noise ratios based on unequal desirability. The significant level of the parameters was evaluated by using analysis of variance. Furthermore, the second-order model for predicting the objectives was derived by applying response surface methodology. It can be summarized that, first, the affecting parameters to obtain superior structural life can be ordered at significant level of ca. 65, 25 and 10% for air pressure, impact frequency and indenter diameter, respectively. Secondly, using subsequent post-weld mechanical treatment, the life cycle number can be extended up to 12 times on friction-stirred weld. Finally, based on the experimental confirmation test, the proposed method can effectively estimate the structural life and surface hardness within the acceptable range of relative error.

Keywords

Fatigue life Friction stir welding (FSW) High frequency mechanical impact (HFMI) Pneumatic impact treatment (PIT) Optimization 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Almanar IP, Hussein Z (2011) Basic consideration for weldment formation in friction stir welding. Nova Science Publishers, New York, pp 45–53Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nandan R, Debroy T, Bhadeshia H (2008) Recent advances in friction-stir welding—process, weldment structure and properties. Prog Mater Sci 53(6):980–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rodopoulos CA, Pantelakis SG, Papadopoulos MP (2009) The effect of ultrasonic impact treatment on the fatigue resistance of friction stir welded panels. J Mater Eng Perform 18(9):1248–1257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hatamleh O (2008) Effects of peening on mechanical properties in friction stir welded 2195 aluminium alloy joints. Mater Sci Eng A 492(1–2):168–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yang QL, Wang DP, Wu SP, Li S (2011) Research on the effect of ultrasonic impact peening on the fatigue property of 7075-T651 aluminium alloy. Adv Mater Res 295–297:1896–1900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ali A, An X, Rodopoulos C, Brown M, Ohara P, Levers A, Gardiner S (2007) The effect of controlled shot peening on the fatigue behaviour of 2024-T3 aluminium friction stir welds. Int J Fatigue 29(8):1531–1545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gerster P, Schäfers F, Leitner M (2013) Pneumatic Impact Treatment (PIT)—Application and Quality Assurance, IIW Document XIII-WG2–138-13 pp 1–11Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sano Y, Masaki K, Gushi T, Sano T (2012) Improvement in fatigue performance of friction stir welded A6061-T6 aluminium alloy by laser peening without coating. Mater Des 36:809–814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Leitner M, Stoschka M, Eichlseder W (2012) Contribution to the fatigue enhancement of thin-walled, high-strength steel joints by high frequency mechanical impact treatment. IIW Document XIII-2416-12Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nitschke-Pagel T, Eslami H, Dilger K (2013) Influence the deformation intensity on the fatigue strength of aluminium welds with different mechanical surface treatments, IIW-Doc. XIII-2483-13Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Muhammad N, Manurung YHP, Hafidzi M, Abas SK, Tham G, Haruman E (2012) Optimization and modeling of spot welding parameters with simultaneous multiple response consideration using multi-objective Taguchi method and RSM. J Mech Sci Technol 26(8):2365–2370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kumar Dubey A, Yadava V (2008) Multi-objective optimisation of laser beam cutting process. Optics & Laser Technology 40(3):562–570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Periyasamy P, Mohan B, Balasubramanian V, Rajakumar S, Venugopal S (2013) Multi-objective optimization of friction stir welding parameters using desirability approach to join Al/SiCp metal matrix composites. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 23(4):942–955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Nourani M (2011) Taguchi optimization of process parameters in friction stir welding of 6061 aluminium alloy: a review and case study. Engineering 03(02):144–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Koilraj M, Sundareswaran V, Vijayan S, Koteswara Rao SR (2012) Friction stir welding of dissimilar aluminium alloys AA2219 to AA5083—optimization of process parameters using Taguchi technique. Mater Des 42:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. S. Ribeiro, A. M. P. De Jesus, and I. Feup (2009) Fatigue behaviour of welded joints made of 6061-T651 aluminium alloy. Aluminium Alloy, Theor Appl ISBN 978–953–307-244-9Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kasman S (2013) Multi-response optimization using the Taguchi-based grey relational analysis: a case study for dissimilar friction stir butt welding of AA6082-T6/AA5754-H111. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 68(1–4):795–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    ISO/TR 14345:2012 (EN) Fatigue — Fatigue testing of welded components — GuidanceGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ackiel Mohamed M, Manurung YHP, Rahim MRA, Muhammad N, Ghazali FA (2014) Optimization of friction stir welding parameters with simultaneous multiple response consideration using multi-objective Taguchi method. Advanced Materials Research Vol 974:408–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Marquis GB, Mikkola E, Yildirim HC, Barsoum Z (2013) Fatigue strength improvement of steel structures by high-frequency mechanical impact: proposed fatigue assessment guidelines. Welding in the World 57(6):803–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    ISO EN 5817:2014 Welding—Fusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded)—Quality levels for imperfectionsGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    ISO 6507-2:2005 Metallic materials—Vickers hardness test—Part 2: Verification and calibration of testing machinesGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yupiter H. P. Manurung
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohamed Ackiel Mohamed
    • 2
  • Azrriq Zainul Abidin
    • 3
  1. 1.Faculty of Mechanical EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM)Shah AlamMalaysia
  2. 2.Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysia France Insitute (UNIKLMFI)Kuala LumpurMalaysia
  3. 3.Technogerma Engineering & ConsultancyKuala LumpurMalaysia

Personalised recommendations